Assigning responsibility without delegating adequate authority.

1. ________ theory proposes that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
a) Expectancy
b) Reinforcement
c) Equity
d) Path-goal
e) Law of effect

2. The _____ structure is most appropriate for businesses operating in complex and changing environments.
a) functional
b) matrix
c) organic
d) network
e) divisional

3. ______ is the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome.
a) Job enrichment
b) Job enlargement
c) Instrumentality
d) Expectancy
e) Valence

4. In _____ organizations, most decisions are made at lower levels.
a) informal
b) hierarchical
c) organic
d) centralized
e) decentralized

5. _____ claim that QWL programs don’t necessarily inspire employees to work harder if the company does not tie rewards directly to individual performance.
a) Advocates
b) Managers
c) Consumers
d) Employees
e) Critics

6. ______ is the link between expectancy and performance in expectancy theory.
a) Instrumentality
b) Valence
c) Expectancy
d) Equity
e) Actualization

7. What is the benefit of having people participate in the goal setting for their work?
a) People sometimes find ingenious ways to set easy goals and convince their bosses that they are difficult.
b) They tend to generate goals that people accept and pursue willingly.
c) They may then not necessarily contribute to the company’s success.
d) They will set goals that are challenging and unattainable.
e) They may find ways to meet goals simply to receive a reward.

8. _____ is a way of managing in which everyone is committed to continuous improvement of his or her part of the operation.
a) Unity-of-command
b) Total quality management
c) Micromanagement
d) Mass customization
e) Mutual adjustment

9. In Maslow’s need hierarchy, _____ need refers to a need for friendship, affection, belonging, and love.
a) physiological
b) security
c) self-actualization
d) social
e) safety

10. In the context of Herzberg’s two-factor theory, motivators
a) even when well managed, can make employees feel dissatisfied.
b) typically include company structures like policies, working conditions, and pay.
c) describe the job itself.
d) are characteristics of a workplace.
e) are not capable of making people truly motivated to do a good job.

11. Frederick’s work performance has greatly improved over the course of the past two months, so his boss decided to upgrade his status from that of a temporary employee to that of a permanent employee. This is an example of
a) intrinsic reward.
b) glass ceiling.
c) extinction.
d) negative reinforcement.
e) punishment.

12. David, a human resource intern, was given an assignment by his manager. He needed to obtain information from other departments to complete the assignment. But, some departments refused to share information with an intern. David was frustrated because he did not have the power to get the information he needed. In the context of this situation, David’s manager made the mistake of
a) becoming accountable for David’s work.
b) “passing the buck” for David’s performance.
c) delegating inappropriate tasks to an intern.
d) assigning responsibility without delegating adequate authority.
e) overestimating David’s capabilities.

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