historical perspectives on human sexuality

Write a paper of 1,000 to 1,250 words analyzing different social and cultural views of human sexuality.

Select two historical perspectives on human sexuality listed in the text.

Select one contemporary cultural perspective on human sexuality listed in the text (e.g., sexual revolution, gay activism, sex research).

In your paper, be sure to address the following:

Cultural attitudes toward male and female sexuality for each selected perspective.

Roles of men and women for each selected perspective.

Include at least four scholarly references in your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

How would counselors work with a client within an interdisciplinary treatment team?

 Details:

Write a 750-1,000-word essay outlining at least four guidelines for   effectively challenging a client. For each guideline, provide a   case example illustrating the principle. Address the following in your paper:

  1. How can counselors challenge a client without getting into a     power struggle with a client, or provoking client   defensiveness?
  2. How can counselors help a client to identify     unused resources and strengths?
  3. How can counselors help a     client to identify blind spots while continuing to provide empathy     and support for the client? 
  4. How would counselors work     with a client within an interdisciplinary treatment team?
  5. How can a counselor act as a consultant when a practicing     counselor asks for help to strengthen their challenging skills with   clients?
  6. For this part of the assignment, you may write in     the first person. Reflect on your level of assertiveness. Do you     feel you are assertive enough to challenge clients comfortably or do     you feel you are too passive or aggressive? What might keep you from     challenging a client?

Provide at least three scholarly references in your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA   Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to   beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for   successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer   to the directions in the Student Success Center.

This assignment meets the following CACREP Standards:

2.F.5.c. Theories, models, and strategies for understanding and     practicing consultation.

2.F.5.g. Essential interviewing, counseling, and case     conceptualization skills.

5.C.3.d. Strategies for interfacing with integrated behavioral     health care professionals.

Explain how principle theorists from the two theories would view the cases you chose.

Details:

Find two cases from scholarly sources, one that fits with developmental theory and one that fits with critical criminology; in 500-750 words, explain the following:

  1. Explain how each of the cases you chose fit with the associated theories.
  2. Explain how principle theorists from the two theories would view the cases you chose.
  3. Explain how significant studies from those theorists relate to the cases chosen.

Use three to five scholarly resources to support your explanations.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

What are the legal and ethical requirements for a professional to administer, interpret, and/or report the results of an MMPI-2-RF?

Details:

Create a PowerPoint presentation of 16-18 slides for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2-RF).

Address and include the following in your PowerPoint:

  1. A title, introduction, and conclusion slide.
  2. What is the MMPI-2-RF and what does it measure?
  3. What are the legal and ethical requirements for a professional to administer, interpret, and/or report the results of an MMPI-2-RF?
  4. How would information gathered from the MMPI-2-RF assist in the intake and treatment planning process?
  5. Describe potential treatment strategies that would likely be incorporated into a treatment plan based on results from an MMPI-2-RF.
  6. Include speaker notes below each content-related slide that represent what would be said if giving the presentation in person. Expand upon the information included in the slide and do not simply restate it. Please ensure the speaker notes include a minimum of 50 words.
  7. A reference slide with a minimum of four scholarly references in addition to the textbook.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.

Identify the symptoms or “red flags” in the case study that may be evaluated for a possible mental health disorder.

Discussion: Diagnostic Labels as Powerful Communications

A diagnosis is powerful in the effect it can have on a person’s life and treatment protocol. When working with a client, a social worker must make important decisions—not only about the diagnostic label itself but about whom to tell and when. In this Discussion, you evaluate the use and communication of a diagnosis in a case study.

To prepare: Focus on the complex but precise definition of a mental disorder in the DSM-5 and the concept of dimensionality both there and in the Paris (2015) and Lasalvia (2015) readings. Also note that the definition of a mental disorder includes a set of caveats and recommendations to help find the boundary between normal distress and a mental disorder.

Then consider the following case:

Ms. Evans, age 27, was awaiting honorable discharge from her service in Iraq with the U.S. Navy when her colleagues noticed that she looked increasingly fearful and was talking about hearing voices telling her that the world was going to be destroyed in 2020. With Ms. Evans’s permission, the evaluating [social worker] interviewed one of her closest colleagues, who indicated that Ms. Evans has not been taking good care of herself for several months. Ms. Evans said she was depressed.

The [social worker] also learned that Ms. Evans’s performance of her military job duties had declined during this time and that her commanding officer had recommended to Ms. Evans that she be evaluated by a psychiatrist approximately 2 weeks earlier, for possible depression.

On interview, Ms. Evans endorsed believing the world was going to end soon and indicated that several times she has heard an audible voice that repeats this information. She has a maternal uncle with schizophrenia, and her mother has a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Ms. Evans’s toxicology screen is positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The evaluating [social worker] informs Ms. Evans that she is making a tentative diagnosis of schizophrenia.

Source: Roberts, L. W., & Trockel, M. (2015). Case example: Importance of refining a diagnostic hypothesis. In L. W. Roberts & A. K. Louie (Eds.), Study guide to DSM-5 (pp. 6–7). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Study Guide to DSM-5(r), by Roberts, M.; Louie, A.; Weiss, L. Copyright 2015 by American Psychiatric Association. Reprinted by permission of American Psychiatric Association via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Post a 300- to 500-word response in which you address the following:

Identify the symptoms or “red flags” in the case study that may be evaluated for a possible mental health disorder.

Discuss how the social worker should have approached the diagnosis. In your analysis, consider the following questions:

Identify the symptoms or “red flags” in the case study that may be evaluated for a possible mental health disorder.

Should the social worker have shared this suspected diagnosis based on the limited assessment with Ms. Evans at this time?

Explain the potential impact of this diagnosis immediately and over time if the “tentative” diagnosis is a misdiagnosis.

How does School Bullying’s effect a student’s education?

 Search for pertinent journal articles related to bullying and how it affects children’s education. From your research, develop a reference list of articles and include the following:

Use the purpose statement and research question below and  begin searching the literature for pertinent journal articles related to your chosen topic. From your research, develop a reference list of articles and include the following:

• A title page

• A brief abstract

• An introduction to the topic

• A summary of the general theme(s) that you observe throughout all the articles.

• A minimum of 10 articles from refereed (i.e., peer-reviewed) professional publications (not websites or newsletters). At least 2 of the articles you select must use a quantitative research design, and at least 2 of the articles must use a qualitative research design.

• Below each reference, include either the published abstract or develop an abstract summarizing the content of the article.

• The articles must be from a peer reviewed journal and written in the last five years.

This list will help you to complete your Literature Review later in the course.

Be sure to format all article references according to correct APA format. Review the Sample Topical Reference List and the Topical Reference List Grading Rubric before submitting your assignment.

Be sure to format all article references according to correct APA format. Review the Sample Topical Reference List and the Topical Reference List Grading Rubric before submitting your assignment.

Submit this assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Saturday, February 2nd.

 

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to discover how students are impacted by bullying (academically, emotionally, behaviorally, etc.) and how this affects their overall education.

Research Questions

1. How does School Bullying’s effect a student’s education?

2. How are teachers handling bullying situations in the classroom?

3. Are students who have been being bullied being given the coping skills to appropriately deal with the situation?

4. Does every child that has been bullied report the incident to their teacher? What about Cyberbullying?

Discuss what makes questions good or bad and how the bad ones can be improved. Do the same with hypotheses

PART=1 Clearly define variables in your research; however, many concepts studied in psychology have multiple or ambiguous meanings.

Provide research definitions for psychological terms, such as the following list:

·        Intelligence

·        Socioeconomic status

·        Personality

·        Warmth

·        Happiness

·        Delinquency

·        Depression

·        Aggression

·        Health

·        Overeating

·        Motivation

Discuss how different people in your class may have had different ideas about these definitions–how one variable can be defined in different ways.

PART-2 Pose a variety of good and bad research questions.

Discuss what makes questions good or bad and how the bad ones can be improved. Do the same with hypotheses

PART3-  Read Chapters 1 -5 in the History of Psychology Textbook and comment on at least 1 piece of history that interested youRespond to one or more of the following prompts in one to two paragraphs:

1.      Provide citation and reference to the chapter you discuss. Describe what you found interesting regarding this topic, and why.

2.      Describe how you will apply that learning in your daily life, including your work life.

PART 4- Read one of the ERRs for this week and discuss one of the articles or vidoes you found interesting and why. week. Respond to one or more of the following prompts in one to two paragraphs

1.      Provide citation and reference to the material(s) you discuss. Describe what you found interesting regarding this topic, and why.

2.      Describe how you will apply that learning in your daily life, including your work life.

3.      Describe what may be unclear to you, and what you would like to learn.

Explain what would happen if you no longer responded to this conditioned stimulus.

Pavlov’s Dog: An Example of Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is an important theory of learning within the behavioral perspective of learning that you explored in Module 1. The key to classical conditioning is that we learn through association, which is quite different from operant conditioning in which we learn through consequence.

When Ivan Pavlov was studying the process of salivation in dogs, he made an accidental, but really important discovery—classical conditioning. He discovered that after pairing the appearance of the researcher with the delivery of food a number of times, the dogs began to salivate as soon as the researcher walked into the room even when he or she was not carrying any food.

Here is a list of the steps of the classically conditioned learning process:

Stimulus / Response Event Outcome
Neutral stimulus (NS) The researcher enters the room—prior to the dog learning that the researcher is associated with food. There is no response.
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Food—the dog naturally responds to the food. No learning needed.
Unconditioned response (UCR) The dog salivates because of the food. The dog did not need to be taught to salivate.
Conditioned stimulus (CS) The researcher enters the room. Now, after being paired with the food, the appearance of the researcher has become a learned stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR) Salivation now occurs because of the researcher. The dog has now learned to salivate in response to the mere presence of the researcher.

Here is another example of the steps of the classical conditioning process:

You have moved into a new apartment building. The first time you take a shower happens to correspond with the time when someone flushes the toilet. As a result of this flushing, the water in the shower becomes very hot. Now, because of this experience, each time you hear the toilet flush, you jump out of the shower before the temperature of the water changes.

  • NS: Sound of the flushing of the toilet
  • UCS: Hot water
  • UCR: Jumping out of the shower because of the hot water
  • CS: Sound of the flushing of the toilet
  • CR: Jumping out of the shower because of the sound of the flushing toilet

Now, complete the following:

Part 1

Think of a classically conditioned response you have experienced and describe the process of learning this response (what was the process you went through in becoming classically conditioned in this response). Be sure to identify the following:

  • Neutral stimulus (NS)
  • Unconditional stimulus (UCS)
  • Unconditional response (UCR)
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS)
  • Conditioned response (CR)

Part 2

Address the following questions:

  • Describe a practical application that demonstrates this classically conditioned association from your own life. What function does this classically conditioned association serve?
  • Explain what would happen if you no longer responded to this conditioned stimulus.
  • Describe the manner in which generalization works to maintain classical conditioning.
  • Identify the stimulus that has been generalized or could be generalized in your classically conditioned response.

Write a 2–3-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Be sure to also include a title page and a reference page. Use the following file naming convention: LastnameFirstInitial_M2_A2.doc.

In the process of Freudian psychoanalysis, patients may come to think of the therapist as a symbol of their feelings for a parent, lover, or abuser. This phenomenon is referred as

1. _______ drugs focus on efforts to change the concentration of neurotransmitters in the brain. For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors concentrate serotonin in synapses between neurons.

A. Mood stabilizer

B. Antidepressant

C. Antipsychotic

D. Anti-anxiety

2. In the process of Freudian psychoanalysis, patients may come to think of the therapist as a symbol of their feelings for a parent, lover, or abuser. This phenomenon is referred as

A. latent content.

B. free association.

C. transference.

D. projection.

3. In the context of trends in community psychology, which statement is true?

A. Psychoactive drugs have greatly increased the need to physically restrain mental patients.

B. Telephone hotlines are a negative development in community psychology.

C. A high proportion of homeless adults suffer from a psychological disorder.

D. Deinstitutionalization has been greatly decreased in recent years.

4. Lois and Lang are in a heated discussion over the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Lois maintains that psychotherapy works for most people. Lang argues that it doesn’t work for everyone. Who is correct?

A. Lois is correct.

B. Lang is correct.

C. Neither Lois nor Lang is correct.

D. Both Lois and Lang are correct.

5. After Darryl spends some time watching a boy his age happily playing with a dog, Darryl begins to lose his fear of dogs. Which approach to psychotherapy is best illustrated in this scenario?

A. Rational-Emotive

B. Cognitive-behavioral

C. Dialectical behavior therapy

D. Operant conditioning

6. A very large sample, representing the population of the United States, was drawn to study the prevalence of psychological disorders. The second most commonly reported disorder, after depression, was

A. comorbidity.

B. posttraumatic stress disorder.

C. panic disorders.

D. alcohol dependency.

7. In which of these statements is the scientific rationale for distinguishing Type I and Type II most clearly illustrated?

A. The symptomatic profile for Type I and Type II schizophrenia is different.

B. Type I schizophrenics are most likely to be a threat to themselves and others.

C. Type II schizophrenics are most likely to be a threat to themselves and others.

D. If subjects X and Y are identical twins and X is diagnosed with Type 1 schizophrenia, we can be nearly 100 percent assured that Y will also develop Type I schizophrenia.

8. The _______ perspective on psychological disorders has been criticized for relying on unscientific and nonverifiable information.

A. behavioral

B. sociocultural

C. humanistic

D. cognitive

9. Regarding possible environmental causes of schizophrenia, the concept of expressed emotion refers to an interactive style characterized by

A. hostility, criticism, and intrusiveness.

B. practical jokes.

C. withdrawal and isolation.

D. obsessive perfectionism.

10. For the psychologist, abnormal behavior can be thought of as expressing distress of some kind that obstructs one’s ability to function. Because this is such a broad definition, it’s best to think of the range of behaviors from normal to abnormal as

A. observable patterns.

B. statistical variations.

C. entirely dependent on diagnostic assumptions.

D. lying along a continuum.

11. Which of the following statements regarding the DSM-IV-TR is most accurate?

A. Critics agree that the DSM-IV-TR system of classification has successfully increased the reliability of diagnoses without necessarily increasing their validity.

B. The DSM-IV-TR offers therapists a means of determining causal factors underlying a specific psychological disorder.

C. Critics of DSM-IV-TR argue that the classification system overemphasizes physiological factors associated with specified disorders.

D. The DSM-IV-TR offers therapists a firm foundation for estimating the degree to which a given individual is afflicted with a specified disorder.

12. Which symptoms would psychiatrists or psychologists associate with Type II, negative-symptom schizophrenia?

A. Paranoid delusions

B. Presence of emotional extremes

C. Social withdrawal

D. Hallucinations

13. Regarding perspectives on abnormality, what is the common ground between the medical and psychoanalytic perspectives?

A. Both view abnormal behaviors as learned behaviors.

B. Both assume that people’s thoughts and beliefs underlie problematic behavior.

C. Both view abnormal behaviors as symptoms of underlying problems.

D. Both view abnormal behavior as rooted in biological processes.

14. Which therapeutic approach does not require the presence of a psychological professional?

A. Interpersonal therapy

B. Humanistic therapy

C. Family therapy

D. Self-help therapy

15. Which of the following statements regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is true?

A. Side-effects may include memory loss that lasts for years.

B. Disorientation and confusion always accompany ECT therapy.

C. It isn’t known why ECT works when it does work.

D. Depression doesn’t return after ECT treatments have been concluded.

16. Xenophobia is to fear of strangers as claustrophobia is to fear of

A. heights.

B. social situations.

C. closure.

D. enclosed spaces.

17. When Dr. Payne prescribes lithium for a bipolar disorder, she understands that

A. lithium is mainly successful in treating the depressive aspect of the disorder.

B. antidepressants are counter-indicated when a patient is being treated with lithium.

C. lithium can prevent reoccurrence of manic episodes.

D. the specific neurological effects of Lithium have long been recognized.

18. A therapist determined that Alice depends on relationships with others to find some shaky ground for her self-identity. In this context, Alice has always been devastated by rejection of any kind. Alice is most

End of exam

likely to be diagnosed as suffering from a/an

A. antisocial personality disorder.

B. borderline personality disorder.

C. sociopathic personality.

D. narcissistic personality disorder.

19. The key theme in humanistic therapy is

A. self-responsibility.

B. self-criticism.

C. emotional expression.

D. philosophical reasoning.

20. Which of the following statements about autism is correct?

A. It usually appears within the first three years of life.

B. Autistic children seek out social contact.

C. Verbal communication is impaired, while nonverbal expression is normal.

D. About one in every 1,500 children will develop symptoms of autism.

A researcher videotapes patients to see their reaction to wait time for appointments

Research Methods

 

Directions: 

Consider the following factual and fictional descriptions of research.  Select the APA ethical guideline for researchers that the research violates, if any.

 

Exercise 1

You are a student in a beginning psychology class and one of the assignments in the course is that you have to participate in your professor’s study on eye tracking when reading technical articles.  The participation in the study is required and has a value of 25 points.

Is this a violation of APA research guidelines?

    Yes, it violates Principal 8.01—Institutional Approval
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.04—Client/Patient, Student, and Subordinate Research Participants
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.06—Offering Inducements for Research Participation
     
    No, it is not a violation of an APA research guideline

 

Exercise 2

A researcher videotapes patients to see their reaction to wait time for appointments.  The patients do not know they have been taped and were not asked for permission for the tapes to be filmed.

Is this  a violation of APA research guidelines?

    Yes, it violates Principal 8.03—Informed Consent for Recording Voices or Images in Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.05—Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.07—Deception in Research
     
    No, it is not a violation of an APA research guideline

 

Exercise 3

The Tuskegee Syphilis Study was a project conducted by the US Public Health Service in Alabama.  The American Government promised 400 men free treatment for bad blood.  The treatment was never given to the men and was purposely withheld.  The study sample was made up of poor African American men who were not aware they were being studied for the effects of syphilis.

Is this a violation of APA research guidelines?

    Yes, it violates Principal 8.02—Informed Consent to Conduct Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.05—Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.06—Offering Inducements for Research Participation
     
    No, it is not a violation of an APA research guideline

 

 

 

 

Exercise 4

A study involved a group of children diagnosed with mental retardation, who lived at a state hospital for children with mental retardation.  The children were deliberately infected with a contagious disease.  The study’s purpose was to study the history of the disease when left untreated and later to assess the effects of a new medication as a treatment.  Parents were encouraged to enroll their children in the study in exchange for admission of their child to the state hospital (which was deliberately short of space).

Is this a violation of APA research guidelines?

    Yes, it violates Principal 8.04—Client/Patient, Student, or Subordinate Research Participation
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.06—Offering Inducements for Research Participation
     
    Yes, it violates Principle 8.07—Deception in Research
     
    No, it is not a violation of an APA research guideline

 

 

 

Exercise 5

A psychologist is conducting research and has approval from his medical school’s Internal Review Board (IRB).  The original submission to the IRB stated the study would use written informed consent forms.  Later on, the researcher decided to use oral informed consent instead of written consent forms.  The researcher decided that even though he had changed the procedures, he did not need to clear this change through the IRB and proceeded with the research project.

Is this a violation of APA research guidelines?

    Yes, it violates Principal 8.01—Institutional Approval
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.02—Informed Consent to Conduct Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.05—Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research
     
    No, it is not a violation of an APA research guideline

 

 

 

 

Exercise 6

A psychologist is conducting research and conducts phone interviews with 500 participants.  The project interviews take 7 months to complete and the researcher decides it will be too much trouble to contact each participant after the study to share information with them, so they never receive any information after their initial interview.

Is this a violation of APA research guidelines?

 

    Yes, it violates Principal 8.03—Informed Consent for Recording Voices or Images in Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.05—Dispensing with Informed Consent for Research
     
    Yes, it violates Principal 8.08—Debriefing
     
    No, it is not a violation of an APA research guideline