EGGSHELL SKULLS

Consider Vosburg v. Putney, an 1891 Wisconsin case. Putney, age 11, kicked Vosburg, age 14, in the

leg during school. The kick was not very hard – the jury found that “defendant, in touching the

plaintiff with his foot, did not intend to do him any harm.” However, Vosburg was recovering from

an earlier sledding injury to the same spot, and the light kick somehow caused Vosburg to

permanently lose the use of his leg. The court ruled that, even though Putney had no way of

knowing Vosburg was so fragile, he (his parents) was liable for the harm done.

This is an example of the “eggshell skull” principle in tort law – even if someone has a skull as

fragile as an eggshell, if you tap them on the head and break their skull, you’re still liable.

This is also described as the doctrine that “we take our victims as we find them.”

(a) Recall that in the contract case, Hadley v Baxendale (the miller and the shipper), Baxendale

was only liable for “reasonably foreseeable” harms; here, Putney is being held liable for a harm

that was not foreseeable. Do you see a reason for the difference?

(b) An alternative rule would be for injurers to be held liable for the harm their actions would

have done to a “typical” victim, not the victim they actually injured. Which rule seems better to

you? Why?

(c) This is a case of strict vicarious liability – Putney’s parents are being held liable for

Putney’s action, and Vosburg did not need to prove that the parents themselves were negligent in

how they had raised Putney. Give an argument why a strict vicarious liability rule makes more

sense than a negligent vicarious liability rule, or an argument why a negligence vicarious

liability rule would be better.

Students with SLI

As Chapter 6 states, “students with SLI should receive speech and language services from trained professionals.  The role of the classroom teacher is supportive and collaborative” (Powell & Driver, 2013, Section 6.7).  As a classroom teacher, explain how you can support students with speech and language impairments by including each of the following:

a.  Identify which special education law(s) impacts students with SLI.

b. Explain how you will collaborate with the child’s speech and language pathologist (SLP) and why this collaboration is important.

c.  Provide strategies you will need to incorporate into your daily routine to assist these children in your classroom.  Strategies such as seating arrangement, instructional tips to support the student, as well as how you will help this child’s interactions with peers should be included.Support this portion of your discussion with research from scholarly resource as well as your text.

d.   Lastly, explain how you will handle a situation where a parent of a child with SLI in your classroom has come to you concerned because their child is being teased by classmates.  What will you say to the parent and how will you address this in class?

Please Answer All questions and she also wants to see some resource from the text

ADHD and inclusion

Using what you have learned so far about ADHD and inclusion, you will create a Power Point presentation that addresses the following scenario:

You have been asked by your administrator or director to give a 10 minute presentation to the school board regarding inclusion and ADHD.  The board wants to know specifically how this ever-increasing population of students is assisted and supported in an inclusive setting in your school or center.

Your administrator has asked that the following be included:

a.  An explanation of the steps to follow when a parent of a child without an ADHD diagnosis is seeking a diagnosis (e.g. describe the checklist or rating scale you will use alongside the parent and physician).

b.  An explanation of the federal laws associated with an ADHD diagnosis.

c.  A discussion of how parents can be kept involved in their child’s learning once the child has been diagnosed by a physician, psychologist, or neuropsychologist.

d.  An explanation of how students are specifically accommodated through the functional organization of the classroom.

How students are supported through organization of classroom space and assignments.

How students are supported in the delivery of instruction

e.  A discussion of the importance of a schedule (including how you provide breaks for a child with ADHD).

f.  A description of the brain regions, neurotransmitters, and physiological symptoms associated with ADHD.

g.  A discussion of how children with ADHD are encouraged to participate in lessons.

h.  A sample of how children are assisted with self-monitoring (e.g. a behavior checklist).

i.  A specific example of how a child is supported by using David (figure 5.8) as the model.  Summarize this child’s support.

j.  A specific example of a brain-based learning strategy that can be used in the classroom.

k.  A discussion of information that is used to help students at home (e.g.  assignment agenda).

This power point should be 10-12 slides in length, not including the title and reference slides.  You are encouraged to creatively address the material by including graphics, charts, and/or sound.  This presentation must be formatted according to APA style, including the title and reference slides and citing within slides when applicable.  The notes section of the power point should be utilized to show your presentation points.  (i.e.  the talking points when presenting this to the board).  You must use at least three scholarly resources and the course text.

Review the Capsim Mini-Case Study entitled “R&D.” Balanced scorecard.

Your Capsim company makes electronic sensors. You are fortunate because you have information on your customers’ performance requirements and how they may shift with time. Not many companies have that advantage. Address the following in your paper:

  • Explain      how your team has used Research and Development (R&D) to avoid      creating a product too far ahead of its time, or a product that lags      behind market requirements.
  • Explain      why your team chose either a single product strategy (we chose single product strategy) or a multiple product      offering?
  • How      could a balanced scorecard-style dashboard be used to benefit your R&D      team and company leadership?
  • What      lessons have you learned from your Capsim experience that would allow you      to more effectively use R&D in the future?

Your paper should meet the following requirements:

  • Be 6      pages in length, excluding the title and references pages.
  • Be      formatted according to the apa fomat
  • In      addition use the Library to find three additional resources to support the      position you take.

Longitudinal research

QUESTION 22

1.    Recent longitudinal research that has followed children who attended Head Start programs has found that

a.

former Head Start students have more behavioral problems in school and as adolescents they were more likely to be involved in criminal behavior.

b.

most of the effects of participation dissipate after a few years, but the Head Start students continue to have better reading skills.

c.

the effects of participation dissipate after the children leave the program, and after 5 years they look no different from children who did not participate.

d.

former Head Start students had higher academic achievement, fewer grade retentions and were more likely to graduate from high school.

Critical essays

For this assignment, you will compose two short critical essays explaining and evaluating arguments by other authors. This assignment allows you to analyze an issue from a variety of perspectives and assess arguments for or against the issue. By focusing your attention on how the original authors use evidence and reasoning to construct and support their positions, you can recognize the value of critical thinking in public discourse.

Read the two articles “Shooting in the Dark”, and “Focusing on the How of Violence” and write two separate analytical summaries.

This assignment has two parts.

Part 1—First Article

Write an analytical summary of the article focusing on the article’s main claims. Include the following:

Provide a brief summary of the argument presented in the article.

Identify and discuss three ways the author uses evidence to support assertions.

Analyze how the author signals this usage through elements such as word choices, transitions, or logical connections.

Part 2—Second Article

Write an analytical summary of the article focusing on the article’s main claims. Include the following:

Provide a brief summary of the argument presented in the article.

Identify any value-based assertions in the article and how the author supports these value-based conclusions with evidence.

Discuss how this evidence does or does not demonstrate relevance, consistency, transparency, and speculation.

Analyze how the author signals the use of these elements through language. For example, word choices, transitions, or logical connections.

Write a 1,000–1,200 word paper in Word format. For this assignment, you will compose two short critical essays explaining and evaluating arguments by other authors. This assignment allows you to analyze an issue from a variety of perspectives and assess arguments for or against the issue. By focusing your attention on how the original authors use evidence and reasoning to construct and support their positions, you can recognize the value of critical thinking in public discourse.

Read the two articles “Shooting in the Dark”, and “Focusing on the How of Violence” and write two separate analytical summaries.

This assignment has two parts.

Part 1—First Article

Write an analytical summary of the article focusing on the article’s main claims. Include the following:

Provide a brief summary of the argument presented in the article.

Identify and discuss three ways the author uses evidence to support assertions.

Analyze how the author signals this usage through elements such as word choices, transitions, or logical connections.

Part 2—Second Article

Write an analytical summary of the article focusing on the article’s main claims. Include the following:

Provide a brief summary of the argument presented in the article.

Identify any value-based assertions in the article and how the author supports these value-based conclusions with evidence.

Discuss how this evidence does or does not demonstrate relevance, consistency, transparency, and speculation.

Analyze how the author signals the use of these elements through language. For example, word choices, transitions, or logical connections.

For this assignment, you will compose two short critical essays explaining and evaluating arguments by other authors. This assignment allows you to analyze an issue from a variety of perspectives and assess arguments for or against the issue. By focusing your attention on how the original authors use evidence and reasoning to construct and support their positions, you can recognize the value of critical thinking in public discourse.

Nutrition and children’s developmental needs

Knowing about nutrition and children’s developmental needs helps to provide a good start in making healthy food selections, yet there are other factors to consider, including children’s preferences, cultural backgrounds, and, of course, individual health issues. In other words, it’s not always simple to decide what constitutes a quality snack for young children.

For this Discussion, imagine you are an early childhood professional who is responsible for selecting snacks for the children in your program. Some of your children are overweight, some are obese based on nutritional guidelines, and others appear to be underweight or malnourished. Some are vegetarians, and others are accustomed to specific cultural foods. Referring to Table 9-1 (pp. 323-324 ) and Sections 9.3 and 9.5 in your text, what factors should you consider when choosing which snacks to serve?

With these thoughts in mind:

By Day 3

Post your response to at least two of the following:

  • How you would make food selections that value and respect children’s cultural backgrounds
  • How you would balance children’s preferences with any special needs or preferences of others
  • Essential information you would share with families about your philosophy of healthy snacking

Qualitative approach.

To prepare for this Discussion:

· There are “rules of thumb” that guide each qualitative approach. Review Patton’s chapter on sampling types, and study sampling strategies in research articles on the approach you have chosen.

· Review the articles on data saturation and theoretical saturation, and consider which criteria you will follow to estimate “how many.” Remember, in qualitative research, one case can be enough. If your phenomenon is complex or you are interested in a range of experiences, then you will need more cases.

· Reflect on your research problem and question. What are the essential characteristics of participants that you want to recruit?

Address the following:

· Present the most current version of your research question and state the phenomenon of interest (research question is: What are African American parents’ experiences with behavioral therapy for children who have oppositional defiance, aggressive behaviors with autistic disorder level 1 ages 5 to 6 in the home setting with behavioral health rehabilitation services in an urban setting in the Northeast US?)

· Describe the criteria for inclusion and exclusion.

· Describe in detail the choices for sample size, data saturation, and theoretical saturation. Justify your choices with citations of research studies that use the same strategy and/or of methodological articles that describe the rationale.

· Put yourself in the participant’s position and consider the assurances you would want to hear to ensure that your privacy is respected and that your identity will not be revealed when the study is published. Include those assurances in your invitation.

Resistance to pests or pathogens

Genes that were selected for in wild plants because of their value for creating resistance to pests or pathogens

a.      Have had NO ultimate impact on the gene pools or bug pathogen populations

b.      Are found in increased concentrations in domesticated varieties of those plants

c.      May be useful to modern plant scientists as they strive to create vigorous yet environmentally sustainable crop types

d.      Are selected for at a greater rate in agriculture crops

Relations among people within complex societies are

a.      Expressive and enduring

b.      Enduring and reciprocal

c.      Multiplex, enduring and instrumental

d.      Single-stranded and instrumental

The Milgram Experiment Re-visited (2007)

This video is a replication of a study on obedience that was first done by Stanley Milgram 45 years ago. One type of obedience, which has interesting psychological implications, is that obedience, which puts subordinates in a situation where they are asked to take actions that they would not do on their own.

This experimental situation involves an experimenter who asks a subject to electroshock another person. Under what conditions will the subject be obedient and under what conditions will he/she be disobedient? If the subject follows the command of the experimenter to hurt another, he is considered to have obeyed or been obedient. If he fails to carry out the command of the experimenter, he is disobedient. In Milgram’s original study, he found that 2/3’s of the subjects were obedient. This replication looks at whether Milgram’s original findings are true today.

Learning objectives:

  1. Describe the sample and how the study was done (the procedure). Who is the actual subject in the study?
  1. What are some of the stress/anxiety behaviors exhibited by the “teachers” during the experiment?
  1. What were the results for the male “teachers”?
  1. What results did they find for the female “teachers”? Why does the researcher believe women are more likely to follow orders?

For both men and women:

  1. Why do so many of the subjects continue shocking the “learners” even after the “learners” say stop?
  1. What characteristics are displayed by those “teachers” who stopped giving the “learners” shocks and refused to go on in the study?