Functional Organization 

Needs to reply to the following essay thinking about on the Expectancy Theory and conclude with a bible reference and thought. APA format. Around 300-400 words.

 Have a Complete essay APA format paper, but Please keep both responses separate. For each reply type references and citations at the end of it, so I know which ref. and citations belongs to.

RE: Functional Organization COLLAPSE


A functional organization is described in the textbook are jobs or departments that are “specialized activities such as production, marketing, and human resources” (Bateman, Snell, & Konopaske, 2020) and a functional approach to business classifications have “a number of potential advantages” (Bateman, Snell, & Konopaske, 2020).


After reading the articles on functional organizations, the article titled “Organizational structures for new service development” by Elina Jaakkola and Anette Hallin is the one that will be summarized in this review. The article talks about the “specialization” of businesses. The “specialization” of a business is very similar to a functional organization in the way jobs or tasks are given. The article talks about how specialization is “the degree that various departments and employees in an organization are specialized in performing certain tasks” (Jaakkola and Hallin, 2018). The article also talks about how in some cases it is better for everyone to know how to do all tasks instead of being specialized to one job.


The articles relate to the textbook and functional organizations by describing the advantages and disadvantages of a functional organization. Functional organizations can be great for a larger business that have a different department for every job within the company but can actually hurt small businesses. Small businesses should cross-train all employees, especially if they are in the service business. Both articles address how no two organizations are the same so no two can function the same “the organization should be designed to fit the particular circumstance, which may be new and not experienced before” (Burton and Obel, 2018). The article titled “The science of organizational design: Fit between structure and coordination” talks about how organization is a science that should be studied more. Both articles seem to address the downside to a functional organization more than they address the upside.

Biblical Integration

In the bible, the discussion of organizational structure relates to functional organizations in Psalms 32:8 “I will instruct you and show you the way to go; with my eye on you, I will give counsel”. This relates to the topic in such a way that God will guide you in whatever career choice in whatever department you are in. God likes organization, and that is prominent in a functional organization. Without structure, the world would not be what it is today. Without God to monitor that structure, we would not be where we are today.


Bateman, T. S., Snell, S., & Konopaske, R. (2020). M: Management (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from!%2F4%2F2%5Bdata-uuid-1acbbf18ae284008ab95892f410dcbb5%5D)

Jaakkola, E., & Hallin, A. (2018). Organizational structures for new service development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 35(2), 280-297. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

Burton, R. M., & Obel, B. (2018). The science of organizational design: Fit between structure and coordination. Journal of Organizational Design, 7(1), 1-13. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

Needs to reply to the following essay thinking about on the Expectancy Theory and conclude with a bible reference and thought. APA format. Around 300-400 words.

RE: Authority COLLAPSE

Forum 3

Definition: According to our textbook, authority is defined as the legitimate right to make decisions and tell others what to do. (Bateman 2020). An example of authority is a manger, or boss.

Summary: A former McDonalds manager, Andrew Otero Albertorio, 25, assaulted a employee, a 14-year old girl.  The victim stated that when she started working at the establishment Andrew would flirt with her constantly. Later, in the friendship, they started to

Snap Chat each other. Over the next few months, he would continue to flirt with her, and attempted to kiss her, but the victim declined stating it was not right because of their age differences. Andrew then later cornered her into a cooler, and sexual assaulted her. “The victim stated that she felt pressured into the act”. (Griswold 2020). Andrew was found guilty.

Discussion: When you work with someone daily you want to be able to trust them. This former manager abused his authority. He took advantage of a teenager, who was also his employee, knowing it was completely wrong. The employee knew it was not right and tried to stop it but felt she may have lost her job if she did not perform the act. In this situation she felt like she had no other choice but to do it. Authorities are people employees want to look up to. They are role models for people below them, they are teachers, and they are mentors. Employees should be able to feel safe, and be able to communicate with their bosses, without having an ultimatum.

Biblical Integration: This article reminds me of the story of Moses. Aaron was Moses brother. Aaron became King of Egypt. Aaron, put more work on the Hebrews than any other king before him. Moses went to Aaron to ask him to let his people go because God commanded it. Aaron thought Moses was insane and said he would not but would out more work on them. In the end, Aaron’s abuse of power lost his son, and everything he ever worked for.


Bateman, Thomas S. “Chapter Seven: Organizing for Success.” M.Mangement, edited by Scott A. Snell, McGraw-Hill Education, 2020, p. 158.

Griswold, David. “Former McDonald’s Manager Sentenced to 10 Years for Sexually Assaulting Teen Employee.” kare11.Com, KARE, 14 Jan. 2020,

Kapelrud, Arvind S. “Aaron.” Encyclopedia Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 6 June 2011,


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