Online essay writing assistance for students

Please discuss how supply and demand drive the transportation industry? In your opinion, how does the transportation industry affect the environment?

Please discuss how supply and demand drive the transportation industry? In your opinion, how does the transportation industry affect the environment?

I believe supply and demand and the transportation industry are a direct correlation of each other  as the supply or the demand of a product can result in which mode of transportation you choose . I can identify a book for a course that I know I have to take during the summer semesters and because I planned this out, I can order the required book and instead of paying additional fees for overnight, next day air, or the fastest traceable means, I can order it standard shipping and because there is no rush it would travel a completely different speed and mode of shipment. A item that has a great supply and is in great demand( a popular item on amazon) would most likely be stocked in several warehouses and wouldn’t require shipment from cross country or from another country via air or sea.

The transportation industry has a great affect on the environment as highway expansion calls for forests and tress to be cut down and cleared, when there was great railroad expansion there had to be land cleared and tress cut for the construction of the railroad and when they were steam and coal powered this took from the land as coal had to be mined to fuel the locomotives and resulted in air pollution and use of fossil fuels. The expansion of the highway and the more cars, box vans, and tractor trailers that were put on the road to keep up with the expansion and demand of consumers increase the use of gasoline and the amount of pollution as the number of vehicles on the road continue to rise.

Compare and contrast the transport planning models for passenger and freight transport.

Compare and contrast the transport planning models for passenger and freight transport.

This may require you to do additional research in the online Library or Internet.
Freight transportation supports a variety of activities such as trade, production and
consumption. Transportation has to be timely and efficient so that all these crucial activities
take place efficiently. Economic efficiency and quality of service are the major factors that
influence the performance of this industry. The increased regulations and restrictions have made this industry even more competitive than before. Such activities have affected the
operations of the freight industry. The organization of the freight industry has been affected by
environmental concerns as well. Thus, the evolution of this industry has largely been
affected by the modification of technology (Crainic & Laporte, 1997).

These are models that focus on providing and financing of the assets needed in
transportation. The planning models seek to address specific problems to facilitate transport.
Planning passenger transport involves the passenger’s independent decision on destination and
the transport mode. Passengers transport gives a major focus on convince of the means
of transport considering how easy it is access the means of transport.
The security of the passenger ensures that means used is safe and there is no likely hood
of an accident to happen. A passenger’s comfort is considered in planning because many
passengers prefer to travel when they are relaxed. This enables a particular mode of transport to
attract many passengers as their demand and preferences are meet. Pricing in passenger
transport is important because it depends on a passenger’s financial status and ability to pay
(Ortúzar & Willumsen, 2014).

This mode of transport is the process through which commodities, cargo and
merchandised goods are moved from one place to the other. The transportation is mostly
associated with the use of tracks that are of various size depending on the cargo and have low
maneuverability. These trucks are noisy and highly pollute the environment.

The freight transport mainly depends on the logistic company with the delivery
responsibility. The company decides on where the cargo will be deliver, routes to be used and
takes care of the transport cost which the owner of the cargo later reimburses. This means
that the freight is managed from the origin of to the destination. With this planning, it is done by
focusing on the travel speed required to deliver and rate at which the truck is likely to crush.
Validation and calibrations have to be done to compare whether the transport observed
the set traffic and is suit to transport the type of cargo. Traffic conversion is essential as the tons
of weight a cargo has is converted to trips a truck will take to deliver the cargos content. Goods
in freight transport goods are organized in a systematic manner to ensure minimum space is used

Score-100% Week 5 Quiz 3 APU

Cross-training workers is a typical capacity management technique for times when demand exceeds capacity.



Answer Key: True

Question 2 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

Which of the following is a service strategy characterized by the idea that a service can serve a narrow target market better than a broad market?

A.Transitional strategy

B.Focus strategy

C.Demand strategy

D.Differentiation strategy

Answer Key: B

Question 3 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

Quick recovery from service failures may serve as good word-of-mouth advertising for the firm.



Answer Key: True

Question 4 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

A service bundle includes the explicit service, the supporting facility, the facilitating goods, as well as the implicit services.



Answer Key: True

Question 5 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

A very popular fast food restaurant is presently staffed with three cash register attendants that are taking orders. Upon entering the restaurant, customers must choose from three separate lines, each of which leads to one of the three registers. Immediately upon placing their order with the register attendant, customers are given their food and drinks by the register attendant. To analyze this situation, you would use the queuing model for an infinite demand source, multiple servers, and multiple channels.



Answer Key: True

Question 6 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

When companies sell products both online and in traditional retail stores this is called a mixed internet distribution strategy.



Answer Key: True

Question 7 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

Service response logistics is the management and coordination of the organization’s activities that occur after the service has being performed.



Answer Key: False

Question 8 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

When a level demand strategy is used for managing capacity, the firm is required to use a demand management or queue management tactic to deal with excess customers.



Answer Key: True

Question 9 of 10                                                                10.0 Points

Long-term customer satisfaction, especially in the face of service failures, requires organizations to empower front-line service personnel to identify problems and then provide solutions quickly and an empathetic way.



Answer Key: True

Question 10 of 10                                                              10.0 Points

First-come-first-served is an example of a(n): queuing arrangement

B.queue discipline

C.single-phase queue design

D.unfair waiting policy

Answer Key: B


Score 100%- Week 5 – Quiz 3 Week 5 – APU

Question 1 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

Recently how many people people died when a ship collided with an oil platform in the Bombay High oil field area, sparking a fire that gutted a rig that produced one sixth of India’s oil?





Answer Key: C

Question 2 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

There are about how many offshore platforms around the globe and many onshore?





Answer Key: B

Question 3 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

Generally, there are how many industry standards or norms for an integrated safety and security solution applied within the oil and gas supply chain?


B.Very Few


D.Too many to count

Answer Key: C

Question 4 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

In the Smith reading, how long did the project take?

A.1.5 years

B.2.5 years

C.1 year

D.1.75 years

Answer Key: A

Question 5 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

What is a professional corporation offering a comprehensive range of consulting services in applied earth and environmental sciences, including geotechnical and environmental engineering, construction materials testing, geophysics and drilling?





Answer Key: D

Question 6 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

According to Smith’s (2010) article Logistics is key during pre-design for linear pipeline, “Geotechnical subsurface exploration involved drilling borings at Geotechnical subsurface exploration involved drilling borings at _____________spaced intervals along overland areas and drilling four borings to predetermined depths at HDD crossings.

A.2 – 3 mile

B.2 – 5 mile

C.1 – 10 mile

D.1 – 4 mile

Answer Key: D

Question 7 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

For the HDD alignments, how many borings were typically located on each side of the feature?





Answer Key: B

Question 8 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

According to Smith, how many reports were delivered as produced over a the year and a half period?





Answer Key: D

Question 9 of 10                                                                                  0.3 Points

What is Smith’s current position?

A.currently the branch manager for the Geotechnology, Inc. Collinsville. CA

B.currently the branch manager for the Geotechnology, Inc. Collinsville. IL

C.currently the branch manager for the Gertechnology, Inc. Collinsville. IL

D.currently the branch manager for the Gentechnology, Inc. Collinsville. IL

Answer Key: B

Question 10 of 10                                                                                   0.3 Points

Why was the decision made to cease the use of HDD in this area and move to a more costly alternative.

A.High accuracy in locating potential voids.

B.Because HDD is the most cost effective method.


The ability to accurately locate 90 percent of potential voids along the HDD alignment.


The inability to accurately locate 100 percent of potential voids along the HDD alignment.

Answer Key: D

Theories of Culture – Culture influences peoples’ perceptions

Theories of Culture

Provide the summary of the letter.

Culture influences peoples’ perceptions as it sets an environment for shared values, beliefs, ways of thinking, and interaction among people. These letters are trying to tell us the way immigrants are being discriminated by the natives in the United states both at the border and in the schools.

There are three basic theories of communication identified in these letters includes,

 Conflict theory

Different groups in society involve conflicts due to resource scarcity, showing that the powerful group will continue suppressing the poor and powerless (Hecht et al. 2005). This clearly seen at the border as the Border Patrol agents mistreat immigrants and act horribly. Moreover, there is a political bias seen as one politician condemns the immigrants by verbally saying the Central American refugees at the border should not be allowed into the US. Therefore, this theory sees society as divided along the lines of socioeconomic classes.

 Functionalism theory.

This theory shows that every social group is collective and contributes to the functioning of society as a whole unit (Littlejohn et al. 2009). Therefore, if every member of society understood this theory, prosperity, stability, productivity, and order could have prevailed well. Good examples of this theory are education systems and the family. In addition, this shows that we are all a society unit in the connected world where technology has chopped down the obstacles of distance and borders.  

Symbolic interactionism theory;

This theory brings together how our perception of ourselves affects our perception of others. Furthermore, the Americans’ perception on themselves affects their perception of others. For instance, when immigrant speak with a different accent from theirs, they asked the person where they come from therefore originality affect communication.

Breakdown of communication process

In the letter the interpersonal communication is observed which involve exchange of information, feelings and ideas verbally or non-verbally between one or more participants. For instance, in the letter when the narrator tries to speak English people tend to make fun of him and asking ridiculous question like where he comes from and what a weird accent. This shows that the narrator is the sender and the receiver as well as the respondents.  

Define the concept/theories and explain how you know this is occurring in the reading.

Context play a significant role in communication. For instance, there are various types of communication context which are applied in these letters such as psychological context, and cultural context. For example, psychological context refers to the mood of the players in communication, for instance, the writer tells much about his mood while learning in class as some of his colleagues tries to laugh him because of his accent. On the other hand, cultural context is well depicted in the communication since it refers to somebody’s origin, their beliefs, values and attitudes and the duty they play as participant. 

In the letter there is distorted perceptions through; 

Discrimination; mistreating members of one group differently from members of another in a way that is harmful or unfair. For instance, discrimination is highly practiced in the context. This is shown by the Border Patrol agents who seemed angry and mistreats people who are queueing to cross the border from Mexico to United States, but upon discovering that one of them is a US citizen they become polite. However, discrimination distorts perception. The way Border Patrol agents see non-citizens is totally different from the way they perceive their citizens.

Prejudice; preconceived judgement, belief or opinion that a person holds without enough proof or that is not based on actual experience. Therefore, in the context there is much prejudice against the immigrants.

Racism; belief that the characteristics or behaviors of certain group of people are fundamentally superior to those of another. Racism in the society divides people widely and prevent them from connecting to one another by building wallsHowever, this walls would make people value themselves and cast away those perceived different from them, thus leading to biasness, hatred, and stereotypes


Cyberbullying and the First Amendment.


Bullying is an offense that the school defines as behavior aimed at harming a student who lacks enough power (Fredrick et al., 2022). The first step in identifying bullying is analyzing if the action can have categorized as bullying. The second step is evaluating the impact of the action on the student’s psychology or the extent of the cyberbullying on the student. The third step is checking the environment where the cyberbullying occurred, whether on or off campus (Fredrick et al., 2022). For each environment, there is a different approach to how things are handled. The next step is analyzing the policy guidelines, which give schools the authority to punish students who use speech that goes against the rights of others.

                                        Cyberbullying and the First Amendment                         

With electronic devices and technology, cyberbullying has become popular in schools. Through social media platforms, students have invented new ways to bully other students, taunting and slandering each other (Kim et al., 2020). Cyberbullying is, in most cases, done by students willingly and is repeated to harm a student. Cyberbullying involves using electrical devices such as computers and phones because they have social media platforms. The actions of cyberbullying lead to the victim suffering psychologically as they have been tormented and ridiculed (Meter et al., 2021). The first Amendment stipulates that students should be protected to be able to express themselves freely. However, the supreme court states that students should have the right to express themselves, which should allow schools to establish disciplinary order and ensure that education happens in the school. Giving the power to schools is ideal as it ensures that teachers have control of their students to ensure that the harmful effects of cyberbullying are stopped which are hidden before the Amendment act of freedom of expression. In the ruling which was between Fraser, Hazelwood Sch. Dist. v. Kuhlmeier; Morse v. Frederick, the speech of the students is limited in the school environment therefore, issues to do with bullying addressed are those which happen in the school (Kim et al., 2020). Schools give institutions permission to adopt their own measures within the school which when presented in court should not be invalidated. Therefore, it can be argued that the disciplinary team should abide to the policies outlined by the district since the school can differentiate between cyberbullying from speech that has been outlined in the first Amendment (Meter et al., 2021). 

There are elements which the school can use to identify cyber bullying, they include, they get in the way of the student education, it interferes with the school environment and creates an environment that is not conducive to the learners 

The First Amendment Argument

 In the first Amendment there is the bill of right that is provided for example to provides an individual with the freedom of speech and the freedom of expression (Meter et al., 2021). Therefore, if the first Amendment is to be used for the bullying act the freedom will have the freedom of expression and the student is within their constitutional right to use it. In a school environment the situation is different as bullying interferes with learning of the students and therefore should not be used (Kim et al., 2020). There is no interpretation for the first amendment limit which can be used by the student while on off campus therefore they use the opportunity to their advantage (Fredrick et al., 2022). The scope of authority is limited by the first amendment act while on off campus. Cyber bullying can occur at any environment at any particular time therefore states should have measures to present and stop ant cyber bullying. Additionally, in State V. Bishop there is a rule by the supreme court which prevents people from sharing information about other people with an intent to fully intimidate or torment the person and especially the minors. 


 Students should have their own policies which discipline students who are invading with the rights of other students especially the rights of expression

Common Payroll Errors and How to Avoid Them

Common Payroll Errors and How to Avoid Them
An effective payroll management process involves ensuring employees receive accurate and timely payments and are in compliance with labour laws. But without enough resources and the right tools, the employee Canada payroll can be full of errors, which can cost your company valuable time and money.
Your company has various options available for handling payroll jobs at hand. It can either outsource or complete the tasks in-house. You need to keep in mind the payroll management process is prone to errors, especially when done in-house.
In-house payroll solutions feature twice as many errors compared to outsourced service providers. That means in-house payroll solutions easily miss one or two steps when going through the process. This article explores the most common payroll errors, how they can affect your business and how to avoid them. Below is a list of these errors and more information about them.
Misclassifying Employees
Payment differs based on the classification of employees in the company. You’ll find different types of employees in a single company, ranging from part-time to full-time workers. Also, some workers can be informal while others are contractual. Some only offer their expertise on projects, while others only work for a pre-decided period.
While some receive a lump sum, others get hourly rates. When dealing with all these payrolls, it’s easier to make mistakes. To avoid errors, ensure effective and up-to-date payment policies are adhered to. Before releasing any payment, the HR team should check the payment policy of each classification before releasing any funds.
Incomplete and Disorganized Records
An inefficient and unorganized payroll procedure can be a disaster recipe. I am relying heavily on manual data entry, paper processes, or excel spreadsheets results in errors that can take days, weeks, or even months to correct. Also, incomplete and disorganized records can result in payment failures or follow-ups on urgent tasks.
Also, having a manual payroll management system means the business depends on one or a few experts to manage all actions. Additionally, it’s easier to fill the payroll manager position with an automated and organized system. There are two solutions to this error; outsource payroll functions to a third party or purchase an automated system.
Miscalculations are a common error, especially when using in-house manual solutions. Incorrect paychecks can be frustrating for employees, mostly when they result in payment failures. Also, miscalculations waste a lot of time since you’ll have to dedicate several hours, days or even weeks to investigate and find solutions.
Within the period it takes to fix those mistakes, affected workers’ frustration grows since they aren’t able to complete their bills in most cases. Payment miscalculations can happen to both hourly and salaried workers. Just like incomplete and disorganized records mistakes, miscalculations can only be solved by outsourcing payroll services.
Incorrect Tax Declarations
Deductions and payments are a vital part of payroll. When errors occur, a company may suffer costly consequences. Depending on the country, various tax declarations need to be paid and submitted to ensure your business complies with labor law.
Employers must complete and submit some forms, or those who provide incorrect information have severe legislative issues. You should train your staff to check all forms before submitting them to ensure everything is correct.
Final Thoughts
Whether your business is local or international, finding a perfect payroll solution can save you valuable resources and time by completing some tasks on your behalf. Outsourcing your payroll functions is a proven and powerful way to avoid these errors. Look for the best payroll service provider and take your business to a whole new level.

The Internet, a global computer network, has transformed how people communicate, work, and access information

Research Paper
The Internet, a global computer network, has transformed how people communicate, work, and access information. Its evolution, from its origins as a military research project to its ubiquitous presence in modern life, reflects its profound significance. The Internet will continue to shape and influence our lives, driving innovation, facilitating connection, and transforming how people interact with the world. This research paper will look forward to the Internet’s history, significance, and future.
History of the Internet
The history of the Internet can be traced back to the late 1960s when the United States Department of Defense created the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ARPANET aimed to develop a communications network that would be resilient to the loss of any one node or link, allowing communication to continue in the event of a nuclear attack. The first message was sent over ARPANET in October 1969 between computers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). By the end of the 1970s, ARPANET had grown to include hundreds of nodes across the United States and had become a crucial tool for researchers to share information and collaborate. In the 1980s, the development of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) enabled computers on different networks to communicate, laying the foundation for what would become the Internet as we know it today. The term “internet” was first coined in 1983, and by the mid-1980s, the network had grown to include thousands of nodes and was being used by government agencies, universities, and businesses worldwide. The World Wide Web, often synonymous with the Internet, was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Berners-Lee developed the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which enabled a web browser to link and access documents via the Internet. The first website, which provided information about the World Wide Web project, went live in August 1991. By the mid-1990s, the World Wide Web had become the dominant method of accessing the information on the Internet, and the number of websites grew rapidly. The development of web browsers, such as Mosaic and Netscape Navigator, made it easier for non-technical users to access the Internet and contributed to the explosive growth of the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s.
In the late 1990s, the dot-com boom saw a surge of investment in internet-based businesses, with companies such as Amazon, eBay, and Google is founded. The widespread adoption of e-commerce and online advertising during this period helped solidify the Internet’s place as a crucial tool for businesses and consumers. The early 2000s saw the emergence of social media, with websites such as Friendster, MySpace, and Facebook becoming popular among young people (Malerba, 2019). The rise of social media has profoundly impacted how we communicate and share information and has given rise to new forms of activism and political engagement.
In recent years, the Internet has become increasingly mobile, with the widespread adoption of smartphones and tablets enabling users to access the Internet from anywhere at any time. The rise of mobile has also led to the development of new apps and services, such as Uber and Airbnb, that have transformed the way people travel and access services. However, the Internet has also faced challenges recently, with concerns about privacy, cyber security, and spreading disinformation and fake news. The Cambridge Analytica scandal, in which millions of Facebook users had their data harvested without consent, brought these issues to the forefront of public consciousness. In response to these challenges, there has been a growing movement to promote digital literacy and responsible online behavior, as well as efforts to regulate and monitor the Internet to ensure that it is safe and secure for users.
Significance of the Internet
The Internet has become essential to modern life, transforming how people communicate, work, and access information. Its significance is reflected in the numerous ways it has impacted our personal and professional lives and its importance in shaping broader social and economic trends. One of the key benefits of the Internet is its ability to connect people across geographic and cultural boundaries, enabling communication and collaboration on a global scale. This has led to the development of new forms of social interaction and community building and new business models that can operate across multiple countries and time zones.
The Internet has also transformed education and learning, providing unprecedented access to information and resources for people worldwide. Online education platforms have made it possible for anyone with an internet connection to learn new skills and pursue educational opportunities that were previously out of reach. In contrast, social media and online communities have made it easier than ever to share knowledge and connect with like-minded individuals.
In addition, According to Comer (2018), the Internet has revolutionized how business is done, enabling new forms of entrepreneurship and innovation. E-commerce platforms have enabled anyone to start a business and reach customers worldwide. In contrast, digital technologies have enabled the development of new products and services that were previously unimaginable.
The Internet has also profoundly impacted politics and civic engagement, providing new channels for communication and organizing that can mobilize people around shared causes and issues. Social media platforms have become powerful tools for political activism and social change. In contrast, online communities and forums have made it easier for people to debate and discuss important issues.
Finally, the Internet has significantly impacted our personal lives, providing new opportunities for entertainment, connection, and self-expression. Social media platforms have made staying in touch with friends and family easier. In contrast, online gaming and other forms of digital entertainment have become significant sources of leisure and recreation.
Future of the Internet
The future of the Internet is one of continued evolution, with new technologies and innovations driving the development of more advanced and interconnected systems. Over the next few years, we can expect the Internet to become even more pervasive and ubiquitous, with increasingly faster and more reliable connections and a greater emphasis on privacy and security. One major trend likely to shape the future of the Internet is the growing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. As more and more devices connect to the Internet, these technologies will enable new applications and services to learn from and adapt to user behavior, creating more personalized and intuitive experiences.
Another trend that will impact the future of the Internet is the growing importance of the Internet of Things (IoT). With the proliferation of intelligent devices and sensors, the Internet will become even more intertwined with our daily lives, enabling us to remotely monitor and control everything from our homes to our vehicles to our healthcare. In addition, we can expect the Internet to become even more decentralized and distributed, with technologies like blockchain and decentralized storage enabling new models of peer-to-peer collaboration and data sharing. This will enable greater autonomy and control for individuals and organizations, reducing the reliance on centralized intermediaries and gatekeepers.
Privacy and security will also be a significant focus of the future of the Internet, with new technologies and protocols being developed to protect user data and ensure the integrity of online transactions (Perwej et al., 2019). This will require a greater emphasis on user education and awareness and collaboration among governments, industry, and civil society to develop and implement best practices and standards.
Finally, the future of the Internet will be shaped by the ongoing evolution of social and cultural norms around online behavior and communication. As the Internet becomes even more central to our lives and identities, we will need to grapple with issues of online harassment, hate speech, and disinformation and develop new norms and practices to ensure that the Internet remains a safe and inclusive space for all.
The Internet is a vast network of interconnected computer networks that use established protocols to exchange data. The Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense established the first wide-area packet-switching network, the ARPANET, in the 1960s (ARPA). It was created to connect academic institutions and government agencies through the distributed computing concept. The World Wide Web (WWW), email, and the development of TCP/IP protocols in the 1970s laid the groundwork for the modern Internet. The World Wide Web overtook other information-sharing platforms as the Internet started to be commercialized in the 1990s. E-commerce, social media, and online communication have all grown significantly due to the widespread use of personal computers and the accessibility of the Internet in homes and places of business around the globe. A billion people worldwide now have access to the Internet thanks to the advent of mobile devices and the development of mobile internet technologies in the 2000s.
The ongoing development of cutting-edge technology like artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchains, and 5G wireless networks are anticipated to impact the direction of the Internet in the future. These technologies can alter industries, increase productivity, and open new communication and cooperation avenues. The significance of the Internet cannot be overstated. It has revolutionized how people communicate, conduct business, and access information. It has created new opportunities for education, entertainment, and social interaction. It has enabled the growth of global e-commerce, information democratization, and new forms of activism and political expression. It has also led to new challenges, such as online privacy and security, the spread of disinformation, and the erosion of social norms and values. Despite these challenges, the Internet remains an essential part of modern life, and its continued evolution and innovation will shape the future of human communication and interaction.

[Free Essay] Essay on global megatrends and power shifts

Essay on global megatrends and power shifts
Urbanisation is among the top megatrends facing the world. The trend constitutes the increasing urban population to the extent of having more than half of the world’s population in urban centers by the year 2030. Positive and negative impacts are expected from this megatrend in the seven years to come. The positive impacts include; economic growth, a better quality of life among the urban dwellers, and higher government concern for the urban people. However, the positive impacts are less likely to be experienced, considering the various negative impacts such as increased pollution, health complications, congestion and traffic jams, malnutrition, loss of biodiversity, higher crime rates, economic issues, and water shortages. Governments across the globe need to initiate appropriate measures to accommodate the urbanisation trend properly and minimize the adverse effects.
The world has been undergoing significant and rapid changes due to the impacts of various contemporary megatrends. Urbanisation is among the key megatrends witnessed globally. The megatrend is characterized by the mass movement of people from the local areas to urban centers. The urbanisation rate is alarming and continues to increase steadily. In 2019, the United Nations (UN) approximated that 4.2 billion people (about 54% of the world’s population) lived in urban centers, a figure that was projected to surpass 5 billion by 2030 (Klein et al., 2017). The main purpose of this analytical essay is to analyze the impact of urbanisation on the world from the 2030 perspective.

Urbanisation is a common trend in both developed and developing countries across the world. Many people are attracted to the urban centers of desire to enjoy privileged social and economic services, among them being education, employment, healthcare, sanitation, and business opportunities, among others. Such privileges are not readily available within the rural and suburban areas, hence prompting many people to move to the cities. There are both positive and negative impacts of urbanisation.
Health Issues
Positive Impacts
Increased economic growth and quality of life
The rate at which cities are growing presently surpasses both suburban and rural areas. By 2030, over two-thirds of the world’s population (approximately 5 billion people) will be living in urban areas (Klein et al., 2017). The mass movement of people to the cities has resulted in an increased concentration of wealth in the urban centers and, subsequently, increased quality of life. Cities are known to contribute to over 80% of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The increasing urbanisation population is most likely to promote sustainable economic growth. Therefore, by 2030, it is expected that most of the wealth will be concentrated in urban areas. Besides, those living in the cities will have the highest quality of life compared to those living in rural and suburban areas. The high wealth accumulation in cities, and better quality of life, will keep on attracting more people, hence increasing urbanisation. However, the realization of such anticipated benefits requires good management of the urban people to enhance their innovativeness, creativeness, generation of new ideas, and productivity (Klein et al., 2017).
Increased Governments Commitment to urban issues
The growing urban population will exert more pressure on governments and authorities globally to execute their roles, duties, responsibilities, and mandates appropriately. Policies geared towards improving the lives of the people in urban areas will increase. Some of the anticipated policies will promote community participation, accessible employment, poverty eradication, and whole-of-life journeys. There will be a shift of focus toward addressing urban issues, especially transport congestion.
People will be advised to consider alternate means of transport to motor vehicles, such as walking, bicycle riding, and electric vehicles. For instance, the number of electric vehicles across Australian Cities has been increasing rapidly, and the government has focused on establishing stations to support such vehicles. The primary aim behind such practice is to minimize the pollution levels within the urban centers resulting from the increasing population (Naughtin et al., 2022). Different car manufacturing companies, such as Volvo, Ford, Honda, and General Motors, among others, have been provided with incentives to increase the production capacity of electric vehicles.
Proper cooperation between the rural and urban areas will be encouraged to support the supply of sufficient and nutritious food to urban people while ensuring that the rural populations are better compensated for supporting more production. The wealth disparity between the rich and the poor people living in urban areas will be addressed through social protection and universal health coverage programs (Veispak. A. (2023).
Negative Impacts
Pollution and Health Effects
Cities consume over 75% of the world’s energy and contribute to more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With increased urbanisation, it is anticipated that pollution will increase, leading to climate-related risks and catastrophes (Klein et al., 2017). The increasing pollution rates across urban areas come as a result of the presence of a large number of motor vehicles and industries. People living the urban centers will be exposed to more indoor and outdoor air pollution, hence the risk of increased respiratory health, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the possible climate change impacts to be experienced across the world by 2030 are high temperatures, frequent and severe storms, drought and famine, and higher health risks. The risk of infectious diseases increasing is very high (Naughtin et al., 2022).
Air pollution will be the greatest concern in many cities by 2030. In some major cities in the world, such as Beijing and Mexico, people are forced to use face masks for protection against the polluted air. The air pollution across these cities is mainly facilitated by green gas emissions resulting the increased energy usage in cooking, heating, lighting, and transport activities (Li et al., 2020).
The rate at which the global population is shifting to the cities exceeds the rate at which the cities are being developed. Urban centers across the globe are not readily prepared to accommodate over 5 billion people. The people are most likely to lack proper housing, hence promoting the growth of slums. Traffic jams will also increase, as the urban roads have not been expanded appropriately to fully match the growing urban population. Increased congestion on the transport means will slow down economic growth due to time wastage and energy consumption by vehicles and other modes of transport. Congestions in resident and commercial areas will lower the quality of life of a large percentage of the urban population. The rate of communicable diseases, such as STIs, salmonella, measles, and hepatitis, among others, are most likely to increase with increased congestion. Cases of other illnesses, such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, are expected to increase as a result of the poor drainage systems associated with densely populated urban residential areas like slums.
Increased Crimes Rate
Criminal activities are most likely to increase globally by 2030 due to the mass movement to cities. The large population of people in the cities will have to compete for limited resources and employment opportunities. The high costs of living in the cities will prompt many people to engage in criminal activities like theft and robbery to get funds for clearing electricity, water, food, rent, and other bills. Other contributing factors will include; social exclusion and increased poverty levels with time. Safety and security authorities, and related agencies, will be forced to work on improving their capacities to deal with growing crime rates. It is not easy to guarantee high security and safety levels, with excessively heavy pollution and informal settlements like slums. Thieves and gangsters will take advantage of the changing city landscapes to rob other urban people (Awasthi, 2021).
The number of people across the world with malnutrition issues is expected to rise. Cities have limited access to healthy and nutritious people, besides attracting high costs, which makes them less affordable to the poor urban population. The increasing urban population will increase demand for the limited available foods, considering that only a small percentage of the world’s population will have been left in the rural areas to support agricultural activities. There is the possibility of malnutrition-related illnesses such as Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, and Anemia increasing (Muttarak, 2019).
Increased Obesity and Diabetes
Currently, the cases of obesity and diabetes have been on the rise. However, the cases are expected to rise further following the increasing urban population. Urbanisation promotes the increase of obesity, diabetes, and excessive body weight through unhealthy eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, and transport means, which minimize physical activities. Besides, cardiovascular and respiratory complications are anticipated to increase, as they are closely related to these two health issues. In the past, these diseases have been linked to the wealthy and top-class people, but by 2030, the number of middle and lower-income classes people struggling with the same will surpass that of the high-income class (Dun et al., 2021).
Water Shortages
Many urban centers experience water shortages, and further shortages are anticipated by 2030. Currently, over 30% of urban populations lack access to clean water, while over 50% lack adequate sanitation. The increasing urbanisation rate is among the key factors contributing to the clean water shortage issues across many cities. The growing population will put more pressure on the available water sources in attempts to meet both residential and commercial water use. With large populations in the cities, many governments will be unable to ensure proper governance and management of water and other infrastructures due to limited resources. In a few years to come, accessing clean and sufficient water in many cities across the globe will not be easy. Among the key alternative water uses that most cities will consider by 2030 include boreholes and the recycling of dirty water (Singh et al., 2021).
Biodiversity Loss
As more people continue shifting from the local to urban areas, biodiversity loss is much expected by 2030, as more land around the existing cities must be cleared to accommodate residential, commercial, and recreational buildings. Urban tree coverage will decline, thus further affecting the quality of breathing air. Climate change resulting from the increased pollution in the urban centers will make the areas unsuitable for vegetation survival. Agricultural lands will also be affected, leading to a reduction in food production and supply to the urban centers (Theodorou, 2022).
Economic Issues
Urbanisation is most likely to generate critical economic issues if not appropriately managed. Traditional industries will decline by 2030, considering that they cannot be operated from urban areas. Such a decline will suggest a decline in the overall GDP and exports. There is a high likelihood of informal economies rising from the urban centers as people from highly diversified backgrounds come together. In most cases, informal economies do not support effective taxation systems, hence denying governments sufficient tax revenues. Inflation issues have been experienced, and higher rates are expected by 2030. This is because there is declining production of major agricultural foods and increasing demands at the urban centers. Low supply, and high demand, will attract high costs for the available food commodities, hence increasing inflation rates. The industrial sectors in the urban areas lack the capability of providing full employment for the increasing urban population. In such a situation, there are expected cases of unemployment and underemployment, which are harmful to economic growth and development (McGee, 2019).
The overall impact of urbanisation by 2030 will be negative. It is high time that different governing authorities focus on developing appropriate and timely solutions for the expected adverse impacts like increased pollution and related social and economic issues. Improving the living standards in rural areas through better social and economic opportunities can effectively address the urbanisation issue.

Interested in the National Rifle Association

Interest groups
I am interested in the National Rifle Association (NRA) as an interest group. The NRA is a non-profit organization largely associated with the Republican Party and its pro-gun policies. The NRA seeks to influence policymakers to preserve the right to bear arms in the United States. It does this through lobbying, campaign contributions, and public relations initiatives. In the 2020 presidential election, the NRA spent around $ 16.3 million on political contributions to Republican candidates. “So far, the NRA has spent $16.3 million in the presidential race” (Nass, 2020, np). This shows the NRA’s commitment to influencing policy and protecting the Second Amendment. I oppose the NRA’s policies and their attempts to influence policy. I believe that there should be stricter gun control laws in place in the United States. I’m afraid I also have to disagree with the amount of money the NRA spends on political campaigns. I believe that money should be spent on more important causes and not on influencing policies that I can’t entirely agree with.
However, I understand that many people support the NRA and its goals. I respect their opinion and right to voice in the political process. Dialogue and compromise are necessary to create meaningful legislation that benefits all citizens.
Discussion Reply
Hello Susan,
What a great post you have there! I fully agree with your support of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). This organization is an important part of our history and has helped ensure that African Americans have the rights they do today. The NAACP played an integral role in the Civil Rights Movement and was instrumental in passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, and national origin. Furthermore, the NAACP successfully fought to end segregated schools, which was the Brown vs. The Board of Education case. The NAACP has been successful in the past and has continued to be a powerful advocacy group. They have spent millions of dollars lobbying in the 2020 election and have shown that they are still committed to fighting for civil rights and social justice. Their efforts to disrupt inequality, dismantle racism, and accelerate changes in criminal justice, healthcare, education, climate, and the economy are commendable. The NAACP is an important part of our history and today’s American society. They have worked tirelessly to ensure African Americans’ rights and fight for social justice. I am proud to support the NAACP and all that they do.