Theories of Culture – Culture influences peoples’ perceptions

Theories of Culture

Provide the summary of the letter.

Culture influences peoples’ perceptions as it sets an environment for shared values, beliefs, ways of thinking, and interaction among people. These letters are trying to tell us the way immigrants are being discriminated by the natives in the United states both at the border and in the schools.

There are three basic theories of communication identified in these letters includes,

 Conflict theory

Different groups in society involve conflicts due to resource scarcity, showing that the powerful group will continue suppressing the poor and powerless (Hecht et al. 2005). This clearly seen at the border as the Border Patrol agents mistreat immigrants and act horribly. Moreover, there is a political bias seen as one politician condemns the immigrants by verbally saying the Central American refugees at the border should not be allowed into the US. Therefore, this theory sees society as divided along the lines of socioeconomic classes.

 Functionalism theory.

This theory shows that every social group is collective and contributes to the functioning of society as a whole unit (Littlejohn et al. 2009). Therefore, if every member of society understood this theory, prosperity, stability, productivity, and order could have prevailed well. Good examples of this theory are education systems and the family. In addition, this shows that we are all a society unit in the connected world where technology has chopped down the obstacles of distance and borders.  

Symbolic interactionism theory;

This theory brings together how our perception of ourselves affects our perception of others. Furthermore, the Americans’ perception on themselves affects their perception of others. For instance, when immigrant speak with a different accent from theirs, they asked the person where they come from therefore originality affect communication.

Breakdown of communication process

In the letter the interpersonal communication is observed which involve exchange of information, feelings and ideas verbally or non-verbally between one or more participants. For instance, in the letter when the narrator tries to speak English people tend to make fun of him and asking ridiculous question like where he comes from and what a weird accent. This shows that the narrator is the sender and the receiver as well as the respondents.  

Define the concept/theories and explain how you know this is occurring in the reading.

Context play a significant role in communication. For instance, there are various types of communication context which are applied in these letters such as psychological context, and cultural context. For example, psychological context refers to the mood of the players in communication, for instance, the writer tells much about his mood while learning in class as some of his colleagues tries to laugh him because of his accent. On the other hand, cultural context is well depicted in the communication since it refers to somebody’s origin, their beliefs, values and attitudes and the duty they play as participant. 

In the letter there is distorted perceptions through; 

Discrimination; mistreating members of one group differently from members of another in a way that is harmful or unfair. For instance, discrimination is highly practiced in the context. This is shown by the Border Patrol agents who seemed angry and mistreats people who are queueing to cross the border from Mexico to United States, but upon discovering that one of them is a US citizen they become polite. However, discrimination distorts perception. The way Border Patrol agents see non-citizens is totally different from the way they perceive their citizens.

Prejudice; preconceived judgement, belief or opinion that a person holds without enough proof or that is not based on actual experience. Therefore, in the context there is much prejudice against the immigrants.

Racism; belief that the characteristics or behaviors of certain group of people are fundamentally superior to those of another. Racism in the society divides people widely and prevent them from connecting to one another by building wallsHowever, this walls would make people value themselves and cast away those perceived different from them, thus leading to biasness, hatred, and stereotypes


Cyberbullying and the First Amendment.


Bullying is an offense that the school defines as behavior aimed at harming a student who lacks enough power (Fredrick et al., 2022). The first step in identifying bullying is analyzing if the action can have categorized as bullying. The second step is evaluating the impact of the action on the student’s psychology or the extent of the cyberbullying on the student. The third step is checking the environment where the cyberbullying occurred, whether on or off campus (Fredrick et al., 2022). For each environment, there is a different approach to how things are handled. The next step is analyzing the policy guidelines, which give schools the authority to punish students who use speech that goes against the rights of others.

                                        Cyberbullying and the First Amendment                         

With electronic devices and technology, cyberbullying has become popular in schools. Through social media platforms, students have invented new ways to bully other students, taunting and slandering each other (Kim et al., 2020). Cyberbullying is, in most cases, done by students willingly and is repeated to harm a student. Cyberbullying involves using electrical devices such as computers and phones because they have social media platforms. The actions of cyberbullying lead to the victim suffering psychologically as they have been tormented and ridiculed (Meter et al., 2021). The first Amendment stipulates that students should be protected to be able to express themselves freely. However, the supreme court states that students should have the right to express themselves, which should allow schools to establish disciplinary order and ensure that education happens in the school. Giving the power to schools is ideal as it ensures that teachers have control of their students to ensure that the harmful effects of cyberbullying are stopped which are hidden before the Amendment act of freedom of expression. In the ruling which was between Fraser, Hazelwood Sch. Dist. v. Kuhlmeier; Morse v. Frederick, the speech of the students is limited in the school environment therefore, issues to do with bullying addressed are those which happen in the school (Kim et al., 2020). Schools give institutions permission to adopt their own measures within the school which when presented in court should not be invalidated. Therefore, it can be argued that the disciplinary team should abide to the policies outlined by the district since the school can differentiate between cyberbullying from speech that has been outlined in the first Amendment (Meter et al., 2021). 

There are elements which the school can use to identify cyber bullying, they include, they get in the way of the student education, it interferes with the school environment and creates an environment that is not conducive to the learners 

The First Amendment Argument

 In the first Amendment there is the bill of right that is provided for example to provides an individual with the freedom of speech and the freedom of expression (Meter et al., 2021). Therefore, if the first Amendment is to be used for the bullying act the freedom will have the freedom of expression and the student is within their constitutional right to use it. In a school environment the situation is different as bullying interferes with learning of the students and therefore should not be used (Kim et al., 2020). There is no interpretation for the first amendment limit which can be used by the student while on off campus therefore they use the opportunity to their advantage (Fredrick et al., 2022). The scope of authority is limited by the first amendment act while on off campus. Cyber bullying can occur at any environment at any particular time therefore states should have measures to present and stop ant cyber bullying. Additionally, in State V. Bishop there is a rule by the supreme court which prevents people from sharing information about other people with an intent to fully intimidate or torment the person and especially the minors. 


 Students should have their own policies which discipline students who are invading with the rights of other students especially the rights of expression

Common Payroll Errors and How to Avoid Them

Common Payroll Errors and How to Avoid Them
An effective payroll management process involves ensuring employees receive accurate and timely payments and are in compliance with labour laws. But without enough resources and the right tools, the employee Canada payroll can be full of errors, which can cost your company valuable time and money.
Your company has various options available for handling payroll jobs at hand. It can either outsource or complete the tasks in-house. You need to keep in mind the payroll management process is prone to errors, especially when done in-house.
In-house payroll solutions feature twice as many errors compared to outsourced service providers. That means in-house payroll solutions easily miss one or two steps when going through the process. This article explores the most common payroll errors, how they can affect your business and how to avoid them. Below is a list of these errors and more information about them.
Misclassifying Employees
Payment differs based on the classification of employees in the company. You’ll find different types of employees in a single company, ranging from part-time to full-time workers. Also, some workers can be informal while others are contractual. Some only offer their expertise on projects, while others only work for a pre-decided period.
While some receive a lump sum, others get hourly rates. When dealing with all these payrolls, it’s easier to make mistakes. To avoid errors, ensure effective and up-to-date payment policies are adhered to. Before releasing any payment, the HR team should check the payment policy of each classification before releasing any funds.
Incomplete and Disorganized Records
An inefficient and unorganized payroll procedure can be a disaster recipe. I am relying heavily on manual data entry, paper processes, or excel spreadsheets results in errors that can take days, weeks, or even months to correct. Also, incomplete and disorganized records can result in payment failures or follow-ups on urgent tasks.
Also, having a manual payroll management system means the business depends on one or a few experts to manage all actions. Additionally, it’s easier to fill the payroll manager position with an automated and organized system. There are two solutions to this error; outsource payroll functions to a third party or purchase an automated system.
Miscalculations are a common error, especially when using in-house manual solutions. Incorrect paychecks can be frustrating for employees, mostly when they result in payment failures. Also, miscalculations waste a lot of time since you’ll have to dedicate several hours, days or even weeks to investigate and find solutions.
Within the period it takes to fix those mistakes, affected workers’ frustration grows since they aren’t able to complete their bills in most cases. Payment miscalculations can happen to both hourly and salaried workers. Just like incomplete and disorganized records mistakes, miscalculations can only be solved by outsourcing payroll services.
Incorrect Tax Declarations
Deductions and payments are a vital part of payroll. When errors occur, a company may suffer costly consequences. Depending on the country, various tax declarations need to be paid and submitted to ensure your business complies with labor law.
Employers must complete and submit some forms, or those who provide incorrect information have severe legislative issues. You should train your staff to check all forms before submitting them to ensure everything is correct.
Final Thoughts
Whether your business is local or international, finding a perfect payroll solution can save you valuable resources and time by completing some tasks on your behalf. Outsourcing your payroll functions is a proven and powerful way to avoid these errors. Look for the best payroll service provider and take your business to a whole new level.

The Internet, a global computer network, has transformed how people communicate, work, and access information

Research Paper
The Internet, a global computer network, has transformed how people communicate, work, and access information. Its evolution, from its origins as a military research project to its ubiquitous presence in modern life, reflects its profound significance. The Internet will continue to shape and influence our lives, driving innovation, facilitating connection, and transforming how people interact with the world. This research paper will look forward to the Internet’s history, significance, and future.
History of the Internet
The history of the Internet can be traced back to the late 1960s when the United States Department of Defense created the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). ARPANET aimed to develop a communications network that would be resilient to the loss of any one node or link, allowing communication to continue in the event of a nuclear attack. The first message was sent over ARPANET in October 1969 between computers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). By the end of the 1970s, ARPANET had grown to include hundreds of nodes across the United States and had become a crucial tool for researchers to share information and collaborate. In the 1980s, the development of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) enabled computers on different networks to communicate, laying the foundation for what would become the Internet as we know it today. The term “internet” was first coined in 1983, and by the mid-1980s, the network had grown to include thousands of nodes and was being used by government agencies, universities, and businesses worldwide. The World Wide Web, often synonymous with the Internet, was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Berners-Lee developed the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which enabled a web browser to link and access documents via the Internet. The first website, which provided information about the World Wide Web project, went live in August 1991. By the mid-1990s, the World Wide Web had become the dominant method of accessing the information on the Internet, and the number of websites grew rapidly. The development of web browsers, such as Mosaic and Netscape Navigator, made it easier for non-technical users to access the Internet and contributed to the explosive growth of the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s.
In the late 1990s, the dot-com boom saw a surge of investment in internet-based businesses, with companies such as Amazon, eBay, and Google is founded. The widespread adoption of e-commerce and online advertising during this period helped solidify the Internet’s place as a crucial tool for businesses and consumers. The early 2000s saw the emergence of social media, with websites such as Friendster, MySpace, and Facebook becoming popular among young people (Malerba, 2019). The rise of social media has profoundly impacted how we communicate and share information and has given rise to new forms of activism and political engagement.
In recent years, the Internet has become increasingly mobile, with the widespread adoption of smartphones and tablets enabling users to access the Internet from anywhere at any time. The rise of mobile has also led to the development of new apps and services, such as Uber and Airbnb, that have transformed the way people travel and access services. However, the Internet has also faced challenges recently, with concerns about privacy, cyber security, and spreading disinformation and fake news. The Cambridge Analytica scandal, in which millions of Facebook users had their data harvested without consent, brought these issues to the forefront of public consciousness. In response to these challenges, there has been a growing movement to promote digital literacy and responsible online behavior, as well as efforts to regulate and monitor the Internet to ensure that it is safe and secure for users.
Significance of the Internet
The Internet has become essential to modern life, transforming how people communicate, work, and access information. Its significance is reflected in the numerous ways it has impacted our personal and professional lives and its importance in shaping broader social and economic trends. One of the key benefits of the Internet is its ability to connect people across geographic and cultural boundaries, enabling communication and collaboration on a global scale. This has led to the development of new forms of social interaction and community building and new business models that can operate across multiple countries and time zones.
The Internet has also transformed education and learning, providing unprecedented access to information and resources for people worldwide. Online education platforms have made it possible for anyone with an internet connection to learn new skills and pursue educational opportunities that were previously out of reach. In contrast, social media and online communities have made it easier than ever to share knowledge and connect with like-minded individuals.
In addition, According to Comer (2018), the Internet has revolutionized how business is done, enabling new forms of entrepreneurship and innovation. E-commerce platforms have enabled anyone to start a business and reach customers worldwide. In contrast, digital technologies have enabled the development of new products and services that were previously unimaginable.
The Internet has also profoundly impacted politics and civic engagement, providing new channels for communication and organizing that can mobilize people around shared causes and issues. Social media platforms have become powerful tools for political activism and social change. In contrast, online communities and forums have made it easier for people to debate and discuss important issues.
Finally, the Internet has significantly impacted our personal lives, providing new opportunities for entertainment, connection, and self-expression. Social media platforms have made staying in touch with friends and family easier. In contrast, online gaming and other forms of digital entertainment have become significant sources of leisure and recreation.
Future of the Internet
The future of the Internet is one of continued evolution, with new technologies and innovations driving the development of more advanced and interconnected systems. Over the next few years, we can expect the Internet to become even more pervasive and ubiquitous, with increasingly faster and more reliable connections and a greater emphasis on privacy and security. One major trend likely to shape the future of the Internet is the growing importance of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. As more and more devices connect to the Internet, these technologies will enable new applications and services to learn from and adapt to user behavior, creating more personalized and intuitive experiences.
Another trend that will impact the future of the Internet is the growing importance of the Internet of Things (IoT). With the proliferation of intelligent devices and sensors, the Internet will become even more intertwined with our daily lives, enabling us to remotely monitor and control everything from our homes to our vehicles to our healthcare. In addition, we can expect the Internet to become even more decentralized and distributed, with technologies like blockchain and decentralized storage enabling new models of peer-to-peer collaboration and data sharing. This will enable greater autonomy and control for individuals and organizations, reducing the reliance on centralized intermediaries and gatekeepers.
Privacy and security will also be a significant focus of the future of the Internet, with new technologies and protocols being developed to protect user data and ensure the integrity of online transactions (Perwej et al., 2019). This will require a greater emphasis on user education and awareness and collaboration among governments, industry, and civil society to develop and implement best practices and standards.
Finally, the future of the Internet will be shaped by the ongoing evolution of social and cultural norms around online behavior and communication. As the Internet becomes even more central to our lives and identities, we will need to grapple with issues of online harassment, hate speech, and disinformation and develop new norms and practices to ensure that the Internet remains a safe and inclusive space for all.
The Internet is a vast network of interconnected computer networks that use established protocols to exchange data. The Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense established the first wide-area packet-switching network, the ARPANET, in the 1960s (ARPA). It was created to connect academic institutions and government agencies through the distributed computing concept. The World Wide Web (WWW), email, and the development of TCP/IP protocols in the 1970s laid the groundwork for the modern Internet. The World Wide Web overtook other information-sharing platforms as the Internet started to be commercialized in the 1990s. E-commerce, social media, and online communication have all grown significantly due to the widespread use of personal computers and the accessibility of the Internet in homes and places of business around the globe. A billion people worldwide now have access to the Internet thanks to the advent of mobile devices and the development of mobile internet technologies in the 2000s.
The ongoing development of cutting-edge technology like artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things (IoT), blockchains, and 5G wireless networks are anticipated to impact the direction of the Internet in the future. These technologies can alter industries, increase productivity, and open new communication and cooperation avenues. The significance of the Internet cannot be overstated. It has revolutionized how people communicate, conduct business, and access information. It has created new opportunities for education, entertainment, and social interaction. It has enabled the growth of global e-commerce, information democratization, and new forms of activism and political expression. It has also led to new challenges, such as online privacy and security, the spread of disinformation, and the erosion of social norms and values. Despite these challenges, the Internet remains an essential part of modern life, and its continued evolution and innovation will shape the future of human communication and interaction.

[Free Essay] Essay on global megatrends and power shifts

Essay on global megatrends and power shifts
Urbanisation is among the top megatrends facing the world. The trend constitutes the increasing urban population to the extent of having more than half of the world’s population in urban centers by the year 2030. Positive and negative impacts are expected from this megatrend in the seven years to come. The positive impacts include; economic growth, a better quality of life among the urban dwellers, and higher government concern for the urban people. However, the positive impacts are less likely to be experienced, considering the various negative impacts such as increased pollution, health complications, congestion and traffic jams, malnutrition, loss of biodiversity, higher crime rates, economic issues, and water shortages. Governments across the globe need to initiate appropriate measures to accommodate the urbanisation trend properly and minimize the adverse effects.
The world has been undergoing significant and rapid changes due to the impacts of various contemporary megatrends. Urbanisation is among the key megatrends witnessed globally. The megatrend is characterized by the mass movement of people from the local areas to urban centers. The urbanisation rate is alarming and continues to increase steadily. In 2019, the United Nations (UN) approximated that 4.2 billion people (about 54% of the world’s population) lived in urban centers, a figure that was projected to surpass 5 billion by 2030 (Klein et al., 2017). The main purpose of this analytical essay is to analyze the impact of urbanisation on the world from the 2030 perspective.

Urbanisation is a common trend in both developed and developing countries across the world. Many people are attracted to the urban centers of desire to enjoy privileged social and economic services, among them being education, employment, healthcare, sanitation, and business opportunities, among others. Such privileges are not readily available within the rural and suburban areas, hence prompting many people to move to the cities. There are both positive and negative impacts of urbanisation.
Health Issues
Positive Impacts
Increased economic growth and quality of life
The rate at which cities are growing presently surpasses both suburban and rural areas. By 2030, over two-thirds of the world’s population (approximately 5 billion people) will be living in urban areas (Klein et al., 2017). The mass movement of people to the cities has resulted in an increased concentration of wealth in the urban centers and, subsequently, increased quality of life. Cities are known to contribute to over 80% of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The increasing urbanisation population is most likely to promote sustainable economic growth. Therefore, by 2030, it is expected that most of the wealth will be concentrated in urban areas. Besides, those living in the cities will have the highest quality of life compared to those living in rural and suburban areas. The high wealth accumulation in cities, and better quality of life, will keep on attracting more people, hence increasing urbanisation. However, the realization of such anticipated benefits requires good management of the urban people to enhance their innovativeness, creativeness, generation of new ideas, and productivity (Klein et al., 2017).
Increased Governments Commitment to urban issues
The growing urban population will exert more pressure on governments and authorities globally to execute their roles, duties, responsibilities, and mandates appropriately. Policies geared towards improving the lives of the people in urban areas will increase. Some of the anticipated policies will promote community participation, accessible employment, poverty eradication, and whole-of-life journeys. There will be a shift of focus toward addressing urban issues, especially transport congestion.
People will be advised to consider alternate means of transport to motor vehicles, such as walking, bicycle riding, and electric vehicles. For instance, the number of electric vehicles across Australian Cities has been increasing rapidly, and the government has focused on establishing stations to support such vehicles. The primary aim behind such practice is to minimize the pollution levels within the urban centers resulting from the increasing population (Naughtin et al., 2022). Different car manufacturing companies, such as Volvo, Ford, Honda, and General Motors, among others, have been provided with incentives to increase the production capacity of electric vehicles.
Proper cooperation between the rural and urban areas will be encouraged to support the supply of sufficient and nutritious food to urban people while ensuring that the rural populations are better compensated for supporting more production. The wealth disparity between the rich and the poor people living in urban areas will be addressed through social protection and universal health coverage programs (Veispak. A. (2023).
Negative Impacts
Pollution and Health Effects
Cities consume over 75% of the world’s energy and contribute to more than 70% of global greenhouse gas emissions. With increased urbanisation, it is anticipated that pollution will increase, leading to climate-related risks and catastrophes (Klein et al., 2017). The increasing pollution rates across urban areas come as a result of the presence of a large number of motor vehicles and industries. People living the urban centers will be exposed to more indoor and outdoor air pollution, hence the risk of increased respiratory health, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the possible climate change impacts to be experienced across the world by 2030 are high temperatures, frequent and severe storms, drought and famine, and higher health risks. The risk of infectious diseases increasing is very high (Naughtin et al., 2022).
Air pollution will be the greatest concern in many cities by 2030. In some major cities in the world, such as Beijing and Mexico, people are forced to use face masks for protection against the polluted air. The air pollution across these cities is mainly facilitated by green gas emissions resulting the increased energy usage in cooking, heating, lighting, and transport activities (Li et al., 2020).
The rate at which the global population is shifting to the cities exceeds the rate at which the cities are being developed. Urban centers across the globe are not readily prepared to accommodate over 5 billion people. The people are most likely to lack proper housing, hence promoting the growth of slums. Traffic jams will also increase, as the urban roads have not been expanded appropriately to fully match the growing urban population. Increased congestion on the transport means will slow down economic growth due to time wastage and energy consumption by vehicles and other modes of transport. Congestions in resident and commercial areas will lower the quality of life of a large percentage of the urban population. The rate of communicable diseases, such as STIs, salmonella, measles, and hepatitis, among others, are most likely to increase with increased congestion. Cases of other illnesses, such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, are expected to increase as a result of the poor drainage systems associated with densely populated urban residential areas like slums.
Increased Crimes Rate
Criminal activities are most likely to increase globally by 2030 due to the mass movement to cities. The large population of people in the cities will have to compete for limited resources and employment opportunities. The high costs of living in the cities will prompt many people to engage in criminal activities like theft and robbery to get funds for clearing electricity, water, food, rent, and other bills. Other contributing factors will include; social exclusion and increased poverty levels with time. Safety and security authorities, and related agencies, will be forced to work on improving their capacities to deal with growing crime rates. It is not easy to guarantee high security and safety levels, with excessively heavy pollution and informal settlements like slums. Thieves and gangsters will take advantage of the changing city landscapes to rob other urban people (Awasthi, 2021).
The number of people across the world with malnutrition issues is expected to rise. Cities have limited access to healthy and nutritious people, besides attracting high costs, which makes them less affordable to the poor urban population. The increasing urban population will increase demand for the limited available foods, considering that only a small percentage of the world’s population will have been left in the rural areas to support agricultural activities. There is the possibility of malnutrition-related illnesses such as Kwashiorkor, Marasmus, and Anemia increasing (Muttarak, 2019).
Increased Obesity and Diabetes
Currently, the cases of obesity and diabetes have been on the rise. However, the cases are expected to rise further following the increasing urban population. Urbanisation promotes the increase of obesity, diabetes, and excessive body weight through unhealthy eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, and transport means, which minimize physical activities. Besides, cardiovascular and respiratory complications are anticipated to increase, as they are closely related to these two health issues. In the past, these diseases have been linked to the wealthy and top-class people, but by 2030, the number of middle and lower-income classes people struggling with the same will surpass that of the high-income class (Dun et al., 2021).
Water Shortages
Many urban centers experience water shortages, and further shortages are anticipated by 2030. Currently, over 30% of urban populations lack access to clean water, while over 50% lack adequate sanitation. The increasing urbanisation rate is among the key factors contributing to the clean water shortage issues across many cities. The growing population will put more pressure on the available water sources in attempts to meet both residential and commercial water use. With large populations in the cities, many governments will be unable to ensure proper governance and management of water and other infrastructures due to limited resources. In a few years to come, accessing clean and sufficient water in many cities across the globe will not be easy. Among the key alternative water uses that most cities will consider by 2030 include boreholes and the recycling of dirty water (Singh et al., 2021).
Biodiversity Loss
As more people continue shifting from the local to urban areas, biodiversity loss is much expected by 2030, as more land around the existing cities must be cleared to accommodate residential, commercial, and recreational buildings. Urban tree coverage will decline, thus further affecting the quality of breathing air. Climate change resulting from the increased pollution in the urban centers will make the areas unsuitable for vegetation survival. Agricultural lands will also be affected, leading to a reduction in food production and supply to the urban centers (Theodorou, 2022).
Economic Issues
Urbanisation is most likely to generate critical economic issues if not appropriately managed. Traditional industries will decline by 2030, considering that they cannot be operated from urban areas. Such a decline will suggest a decline in the overall GDP and exports. There is a high likelihood of informal economies rising from the urban centers as people from highly diversified backgrounds come together. In most cases, informal economies do not support effective taxation systems, hence denying governments sufficient tax revenues. Inflation issues have been experienced, and higher rates are expected by 2030. This is because there is declining production of major agricultural foods and increasing demands at the urban centers. Low supply, and high demand, will attract high costs for the available food commodities, hence increasing inflation rates. The industrial sectors in the urban areas lack the capability of providing full employment for the increasing urban population. In such a situation, there are expected cases of unemployment and underemployment, which are harmful to economic growth and development (McGee, 2019).
The overall impact of urbanisation by 2030 will be negative. It is high time that different governing authorities focus on developing appropriate and timely solutions for the expected adverse impacts like increased pollution and related social and economic issues. Improving the living standards in rural areas through better social and economic opportunities can effectively address the urbanisation issue.

Developing Creativity, Finding Humor, And Encouraging Alternative Solutions

Developing Creativity, Finding Humor, And Encouraging Alternative Solutions

Developing Creativity, Finding Humor, And Encouraging Alternative Solutions
The creative thinking assignment or task is for students to think and develop a new policy for a diverse community that would foster relationships between the police and the community itself.
The assignment meets the guidelines and allows creativity in various ways. The task will require students to conduct their research about any policies in existence for a diverse community and come up with a new policy that is more effective and efficient in promoting relationships between the police and the community. By researching for the best approach, the students will employ creativity through brainstorming with fellow students, friends, and people outside the school, such as law enforcement officers. Brainstorming is an effective strategy for helping students with difficulty with tasks as they can pick on the brains of those who better understand the concepts (Landmark Outreach Staff, n.d.). The research will also expose them to new ideas, expanding their minds and creativity. In addition, since each student has a different task, they will employ their best creativity sense to ensure they come up with better policies than their fellow students. The task also meets the guidelines for developing assignments as it will allow students to think critically as they will have to consider the policy’s implications and its restraints to make it viable and workable.

Students approached the task in different ways. Some students preferred policing strategies that are community-oriented, such as creating a feedback loop for input from citizens, holding monthly meetings with the community members as well as the police, department increasing transparency on its operations. Other suggested policing programs that provide resources for the community to build their trust with the police. Others suggested the implementation of a watch program for the neighbourhood whether they will be able to detect suspicious criminal activities and report them before they escalate. Others proposed a technological application that will make communication with the police easier through which the police will receive feedback, and the community can make complaints. All the approaches are great ways of creating a policy and demonstrating creative thinking for the assignments.

I attempted to help students find humour when confused or frustrated with their assigned task by encouraging them to think outside the box and take risks to come up with creative solutions. Through having the students lacking behind to find innovative solutions, I encouraged them to brainstorm and come up with ideas, even the ones considered silly. In other instances, I would provide a funny scenario and have them think of a creative solution for it to help guide them if they are stuck. The incorporation of humour in classroom settings lessens the tense atmosphere allowing the minds of students to think more openly and creatively (Costa & Kallick, 2008). I would also encourage them to think of ways citizens and the police can become friends and use funnies to bridge the gap for those with negative attitudes towards law enforcement. I also asked them to come up with funny nicknames for law enforcement officers that would increase the sense of camaraderie and create a more relaxed atmosphere between the two.
Some students found the task easy, while others found it challenging. Those who found it difficult claimed that the brainstorming sessions helped them develop better solutions. Other students stated that they had to interact with law enforcement officers, and most of them claimed that the police were kind and helpful to them. Others noted that upon interacting with law enforcement officers, they realized that there was a need for the police to undergo diversity training to be able to foster better relationships with the community through being culturally sensitive.

[Free Essay]- Origin of Sanskrit

Origin of Sanskrit
Sanskrit is an ancient Indo-Aryan language widely spoken in India from 1700-1200 BCE. The Sanskrit language is currently used in religious ceremonies by religious leaders and in sacred writings. Sanskrit is presently an official language in India that was anciently in the southern part of Asia the later became widespread in other parts of Asia. The language got its name Sanskrit from joining the prefix Sam derived from the word “samyak,” an Indian word that means entirely, and another Indian word, “krit,” which means done. This research paper discusses how the Sanskrit language existed until it was widespread and spoken all over Asia by different religious leaders.

The Sanskrit language was brought into existence by god Brahma and passed to a saint called Rishis in the heavens (Houben). Rishis communicated the language to living prophets and disciples on earth, which was later widespread on the planet since the living disciples could use the language while performing religious acts and writing holy books (“Sanskrit Definition and Meaning | Collins English Dictionary”). The written form of the language existed after the verbal form of Sanskrit was widely spoken and was used in passing helpful information to different generations through word of mouth.
The written form of Sanskrit was first a collection of sacred hymns called the Rig Veda. The literary forms of Sanskrit have different periods, which are the Classical and Vedic periods. The Vedic Sanskrit form is compiled in sacred texts called Vedas from about 1000 to 500 BCE. The earliest form of Sanskrit consisted of 52 letters, and maintaining the vowels makes the language ideal when forming or pronouncing words. The language became widely spoken because of oral communication and traditional religious functions (Shekhar). Performing poems, songs, and drama during religious gatherings using the Sanskrit language made the language widespread all over Asia.

The language was passed through different generations and spoken by individuals from every culture since people from other communities and ages embraced the language. The urge to learn Sanskrit passes from one generation to the other. When the Vedic Sanskrit period came to a distinct state, the classical Sanskrit era took over, and since there was a need to record everything that happened, the rules and religious words had to be written (Cardona). The regulations are in the form of writings since the culture kept changing, and other restrictions were omitted. To ensure further omissions do not happen and the language taught to new generations. Panini, who had descended from pain and was a grammar and linguistics expert, invented the clarified version of the Sanskrit language.
Panini’s anticipation that the language would be instinctual since the tongue can change and other information omitted when the language is transferred orally to the generation that could have existed in the 4th century. The last religious written version of the Sanskrit language was the Upanishads. When the 4th century ended, the Ashtadhayayi, which had eight chapters, was brought into existence. The Ashtadhayayi is currently the only available text comprised of the Sanskrit language and vocabulary and the only article considered to be the source of the Sanskrit language currently. The analysis and explanation in Panini’s report describe Sanskrit and the translation of Sanskrit to current modern languages. In the article, Panini gives reasons why Sanskrit should remain sacred and the different forms and places where the language is applicable.

As discussed above, the Sanskrit language is sacred and preserved since it is historical and passes rules and previous traditional beliefs practiced anciently. A lot from the past is always around us, and historical researchers always ensure that ancient inventions and cultural practices are recognized. For example, the Sanskrit language is in the form of writings yet still passed through generations; thus, it is hard for the language to become extinct. Preserving ancient culture ensures ancient practices remain existing, and passing culture to the coming generation is easy. Documented history is always accurate; thus, Panini’s idea of storing Sanskrit in writing was a good idea. It is just to conclude that information passed to the next generation is accurate.

[Free Essay] Internal communication

Internal communication refers to the exchange of information among the staff of various levels within an organization. Effective internal communication is essential in an organization since it ensures clarity for every staff in the company. Internal communication aims to ensure an effective flow of information between different departments in an organization and colleagues. Therefore, internal communication involves both up and down the management and includes interaction between the employees in the company. This paper will discuss the importance of internal communication within an organization.
Internal communication is essential within a company as it enhances employee engagement. Employee engagement is achieved by giving the appropriate conditions for all employees to optimize their output. Effective communication ensures the employees are committed to the company’s goals and values and are inspired to contribute towards the organization’s success (Men, Rita, and Stacks, p. 301-324). Internal communication can influence the employees’ physical, cognitive, and emotional aspects and, in turn, can change the level of employee engagement. Internal communication involves listening to employees at all levels, holding face-to-face communication, and having a two-way conversation, making the employees feel more engaged.

Good internal communication in an organization reduces conflicts. Conflicts are common in the workplace since the clash of ideas, misunderstandings, or even the feeling of lack of recognition can lead to disputes (Spaho, pp. 103-118). Hence, poor communication in an organization could lead to missed opportunities, deadlines, and misunderstandings. Conflicts are hard to avoid since everyone sees the world through their lenses and has perceptions established through experiences, individual culture, diversity, and values. However, the chances of having conflicts could be limited by allowing everyone to give their perspectives and openly air their issues. Therefore, internal communication is important in an organization, and all companies should deliberately foster a culture of communication to enhance respect, diversity, listening, and solving problems immediately.

Effective internal communication builds transparency in an organization which fosters trust. Internal communication ensures that the employees in an organization get first-hand information about the events in the company immediately from top-level management or their leaders and do not learn about them from a third person or external sources (Mishra et al., pp. 183-202). Most of the employees are interested in knowing how decisions are made in their organizations. Hence transparency should be enhanced in how the organization operates and the management makes the decisions. As a result, the employees would trust their leaders, and accountability is established in the company. Transparency is built when the flow of information from top-level managers to the employees is fast and enables all the company staff to be on the same page. Thus, the companies should ensure effective internal communication to achieve transparency that would yield a strong workplace culture.

Good internal communication ensures that employees of an organization are informed and updated. Internal communication attempts to keep the employees updated on any information that is necessary for them to know. Many employees are interested in knowing what is currently happening in their company. Many employees also work better when they have good information about what is going on in the company. At the same time, some develop a better relationships with their colleagues through good communication within the organization. Therefore, having good communication in the company would help keep employees aware of what is taking place in the organization and also allow them to know about any changes, such as the company policies and the work culture.

Good internal communication is essential during times of crisis as it eases management. Many companies experience crises in various situations, such as during acquisition, merging, pandemics, political situations, and macroeconomic crises. A crisis may force the company to lay off some of its workers or make an unpleasant decision, possibly leading to restructuring the company (Li et al., pp. 101984). A crisis negatively influences any business regardless of the company’s size; therefore, all the company’s stakeholders would need to know all the company’s details. Effective internal communication would be helpful in the management of such crises and limit the chances of misinformation that could be adverse to the company. Rumors could quickly spread and cause harm to the workplace, and the stakeholders might lose trust if internal communication is ineffective during a crisis. However, with the help of effective communication, an organization would continue to thrive even during a crisis.

Internal communication aids in the company’s external communication even though both are considered separate entities. Excellent internal communication ensures that the company’s employees are well informed; hence, they would act as brand advocates and share good information about the company (Lee et al., pp.61-82). Outside the company, the employees are influential since anything they say holds more weight because they are part of the company. The company is either positively or negatively affected by what the employees say. However, when internal communication is done well, the employees would have clear information on what is happening in the company and feel part of the organization. Since the employees would have a good feeling towards the company, they would say good things about the company, and hence they would be ambassadors of the organization.

Internal communication is significant in an organization since it ensures the efficient passage of information to every member. Internal communication should be given much attention as it ensures employee engagement, and engaged employees deliver better, helping the business grow. Internal communication is also essential in managing and preventing organizational conflicts and crises. Effective communication would prevent misunderstanding and ensure vital information is passed well, preventing conflicts that may arise. It manages crisis since all the stakeholders would know what is happening in the organization and counters any rumors that may negatively affect the organization.

[Free Essays] electric cars may become a viable alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles

Question one
Yes, electric cars may become a viable alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles. The electric car has many advantages over its gasoline-powered counterpart, such as lower operating costs, zero tailpipe emissions, and the potential for longer driving ranges. Additionally, electric cars can be powered by renewable energy sources, making them even more environmentally friendly (Elshurafa & Peerbocus, 2020).
In the context of KSA, electric cars are part of the Saudi Vision 2030, which is the Kingdom’s plan to diversify its economy away from oil and reduce its carbon footprint. The Saudi government has announced plans to increase its electric car fleet vehicles by 2030 and is investing heavily in electric car charging infrastructure. This commitment to electric vehicles will likely result in increased adoption in the Kingdom, and electric cars may become a viable alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles shortly (Alotaibi, Omer & Su, 2022).
Question two
BYD Mission: To be the world leader in the manufacturing of electric cars and offering innovative technology.
1. To produce the most efficient and reliable electric cars in the market.
2. To be the first to introduce electric cars to the market with the latest technology.
3. To position the company as an industry leader with innovative and sustainable solutions.

Distinctive Competence: BYD’s unique competitive advantage lies in its focus on electrical engineering and battery technology and its ability to develop innovative solutions.
Key Decisions:
1. Develop a long-term battery technology and electric vehicle engineering strategy that allows for scalability and innovation.
2. Identifying and investing in key suppliers and partners who can provide the solutions for BYD’s electric car ambitions.
3. Establishing a streamlined and efficient supply chain management system that allows for the efficient production and delivery of electric cars.
4. Investing in research and development to ensure the company remains at the forefront of electric car technology.
5. Focusing on customer experience and satisfaction ensures that BYD cars remain competitive.
Question three
Electric cars are an important part of Saudi Arabia’s vision for the Neom City project. Electric vehicles provide an economical, sustainable, and efficient way to power transportation. According to Almutairi (2021), by utilizing electric vehicles, the Neom project can reduce the reliance on fossil fuels and improve the city’s air quality. This, in turn, will reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases, making Neom a more sustainable and environmentally friendly city. Electric vehicles are much quieter and less polluting than their gasoline counterparts, making them ideal for Neom’s urban environment.
By investing in electric vehicles, Saudi Arabia can significantly reduce the cost of transportation and help create a greener and more efficient city. This, in turn, will help the Kingdom meet its vision for the Neom project and create an attractive, modern city for the future (Alam et al. (2021). Furthermore, electric vehicles are becoming increasingly popular in Saudi Arabia, with the government introducing incentives and subsidies to encourage the use of electric vehicles. This is helping to boost the number of electric vehicles on the road, as well as providing a boost to the economy.
Electric cars also offer several safety features that make them a great choice for the Neom project. For example, electric cars are equipped with advanced safety features such as anti-lock brakes, traction control, and airbags. This helps to reduce the risk of an accident and improve the overall safety of the city (Indu & Aswatha Kumar, 2020).
Additionally, electric cars are less prone to breakdowns and require less maintenance than gasoline cars, meaning that Neom City can benefit from fewer breakdowns and a more reliable transportation network ( Zaggia, 2022).
Electric cars are an important part of Saudi Arabia’s vision for the Neom project. By utilizing electric vehicles, the project can reduce reliance on fossil fuels and improve the city’s air quality. Furthermore, electric cars offer several safety features and require less maintenance, making them a great choice for the Neom project. By investing in electric vehicles, Saudi Arabia can significantly reduce the cost of transportation and help create a greener and more efficient city.

[Free Essay] Strategic Innovation Management

Technology plays a crucial role in modern life because of its ability to restore social connections; advancements in technology have led to greater workplace productivity across various fields, regardless of their size or scope (Boyles, 2022). As a result of the rise of technologically supported and driven products or services, multimodality is now a defining characteristic of modern life. People who are constantly on the move for work, whether locally or internationally, have reasonable concerns about the removal of technology. The article “Innovation and its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies” by Clayton Christensen, Matthew Verlinden, and Karen Dillon. This article investigates the factors that cause people to reject innovative technologies and offers suggestions for how businesses can overcome this resistance. The authors look at how the rise of digital tools is influencing innovation and how that is influencing the way innovation is managed in businesses.
There may have been a valid explanation for the lack of technological innovations during that time period, such as a conscious decision to forego using the practices and systems of the time in order to maintain more traditional methods (Chatterjee et al., 2017). While dwindling consumer financial support is essential to maintaining the high costs of technology, lack of access due to location is a major barrier. When it comes to putting new, cutting-edge business strategies into practice, regions that need access to vital data often need to catch up to those that do (Cote, 2020). The primary goal of this essay is to gain insight into the reasoning behind embracing and resisting technological and innovative changes.

One of the paper’s central claims is that new ideas frequently lead to strife in the workplace. According to the authors, people resist technological change because they perceive a threat from it. This could be due to worries about their jobs or the success of technological advances. Kraus et al. (2022) stated that in order to triumph over these obstacles, businesses must devise strategies to educate and encourage their staff to embrace technological advancements.
One way for practicing innovation managers to find out where the business could benefit from the incorporation of digital technologies is to have an audit of IT systems and infrastructure performed.
Create a plan for digital implementation. Create an all-encompassing digital strategy that details the objectives, schedule, budget, and resources required for implementing innovative channels in the organization based on the findings of the technology audit.
Involve relevant parties: Get to know the wants and needs of key stakeholders like employees, customers, and vendors before beginning the digital transformation process. That the digital strategy is tailored to their requirements can be ensured in this way.
Solution-focused technology implementations: Make smart choices about which technological solutions to implement based on the digital strategy. Upgrades to software and hardware, the cloud, AI, and other digital technologies may fall into this category.
Educate and prepare workers: Make sure everyone in the company knows how to make the most of the digital tools available. Educate and train them to use the new technologies to their full potential.
Track and assess development: Ensure the digital strategy is being met by regularly monitoring and evaluating the implementation of digital technology. If the technology is not being used properly or producing the expected results, make the necessary adjustments.
The article emphasizes the importance of rethinking work processes and creating new products and services. Therefore, businesses that want to adapt effectively to new technologies should be ready to alter their management procedures, organizational structure, and corporate culture. According to the authors, companies should take the initiative to inform workers of the advantages of adopting new technologies and equip them with the knowledge and expertise to do so successfully (Taylor, 2018).
The importance of business models in the innovation process cannot be overstated. The authors contend that businesses must be willing to adapt their existing business models to reap the benefits of technological advancements. This necessitates an openness to trying out novel approaches and the flexibility to modify their systems as new technologies become available (Purcell, 2019).
The authors further argue that to develop new products competently; businesses must be ready to collaborate with other businesses and stakeholders in their ecosystem. This necessitates an openness to collaborating with suppliers, customers, and competitors to develop innovative business models and capitalize on cutting-edge technologies.
How to embrace innovation

Create a Digital Innovation Group; Form a small, focused team of company high-achievers who share your commitment to success. This group should identify business process weaknesses and find innovative technological solutions.
Use an iterative framework; Due to technology’s rapid evolution, your strategy must be flexible in 2021. Agile experimentation allows organizations to adapt to changing customer needs while challenging them to rethink their problem-solving methods. Companies are opening “incubator labs” to accelerate digital innovation through brainstorming, experimentation, and rapid prototyping.
Buy High-Tech; Upgrades to software and hardware are necessary for companies to lead the digital revolution. Team collaboration, cloud storage, and product lifecycle tracking can be streamlined with the right tools.
Prioritize projects by ROI or value added; Digital innovation requires a value-added system that considers project significance, scope, and revenue to increase ROI. Thus, businesses can allocate resources to maximize impact now and in the future.
Implement new procedures and software using digital resources; Develop a digital adoption strategy to maximize technology investments. Whatfix can help you train new hires. These tools help businesses maintain productivity during transitions.
The paper “Innovation and its Enemies: Why People Resist New Technologies” offers some useful insights for managers who are serious about effectively managing innovation. The authors stress the significance of investigating why individuals resist adopting new technologies and offer suggestions for how businesses can do so. They also stress the need for alterations to an organization’s management practices, structures, and ethos in order to adopt new technologies effectively. They argue that to develop innovative business strategies and exploit cutting-edge technologies, companies must be open to collaborating with other entities within their ecosystem.